Attitudes, school, Spain, stereotypes, childhood, security, intelligence service, video
Making the work of security organizations known to school children is a means of mitigating feelings of insecurity provoked by the diffusion of information on terrorist attacks in communications media and through social media. Whilst there is a longer tradition of projects to educate school children on the police and the armed forces, no comparable projects have been found on the intelligence services. With the objective of filling this gap, the authors designed and produced two animated educational videos for Spanish school children on the Spanish intelligence service: The National Intelligence Center (CNI). In this paper, the impact of the videos is measured in relation to the knowledge, the stereotypes, and the attitudes of school children towards the CNI. To do so, two questionnaires were administered to 1,092 school children aged 8 and 12, before and after viewing the videos. The results of the questionnaire prior to screening the videos showed that the school children held no knowledge of the intelligence services, and expressed highly developed stereotypes, and moderately negative attitudes towards them. Student-t tests for related samples were used to confirm the responses, on the basis of which it was found that the videos modified both knowledge and stereotyping, as well as attitudes towards the CNI. Specifically, following the screenings the knowledge of the school children improved, stereotyping diminished, and positive attitudes increased.
Barker, J., & Weller, S. (2003). ‘Is it fun?’ Developing children centred research methods. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 23(1/2), 33-58. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330310790435
Brown, B., & Benedict, W. (2002). Perceptions of the police: past findings, methodological issues, conceptual issues, and policy implications. Policing, 25, 543-580. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510210437032
Cabero, J. (2004). El diseño de vídeos didácticos. In J. Salinas, J. Cabero & I. Aguaded (Coords.), Tecnologías para la educación: diseño, producción y evaluación de medios para la formación docente (pp. 141-156). Madrid: Alianza.
Carpenter, A.L., Elkins, R., Kerns, M., Chou, C., Green, T., & Comer, J. (2012). Event-related household discussions following the Boston marathon bombing and associated posttraumatic stress among area youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46, 331-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1063432
Comer, J.S., Furr, J.M., Beidas, R.S., Babyar, H.M., & Kendall, P.C. (2008). Media use and children’s perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 622-630, https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802148145
Delli-Carpini, M., & Keeter, S. (1996). What Americans know about politics and why it matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Derbyshire, R.L. (1968). Children’s perceptions of the police: a comparative study of attitudes and attitude change. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 59(2), 183-190. https://doi.org/10.2307/1141938
Díaz-Fernández, A.M. (2005). Los servicios de inteligencia españoles. Madrid: Alianza.
Díaz-Fernández, A.M. (2016). Espionaje para políticos. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch.
Field, A.P., & Lawson, J. (2003). Fear information and the development of fears during childhood: effects on implicit fear responses and behavioural avoidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1277-1293 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00034-2
Flexon, J.L., Lurigio, A.J., & Greenleaf, R.G. (2009). Exploring the dimensions of trust in the police among Chicago juveniles. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(2), 180-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.02.006
Garbarino, J., Governale, A., Henry, P., & Nesi, D. (2015). Children and Terrorism, Sharing child and youth development knowledge. Social Policy Report, 29(2). https://goo.gl/uqoCJC
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books.
Hopkins, N., Hewstone, M., & Hantzi, A. (1992). Police-schools liaison and young people’s image of the police: An intervention evaluation. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 203-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02435.x
Hoven C.W., Duarte, C.S., Wu, P., & Rosen, C. (2002). The effects of the World Trade Center attack on New York City public school students. Initial report to the New York City Board of Education. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York.
Jaramillo, A. (2005). Fictional video and scientific education: a paradoxical relationship. [Vídeo argumental y educación en ciencias: una relación paradójica]. Comunicar, 24, 121-128.
Klein, T.P., Devoe, E.R., Miranda-Julian, C. and Linas, K. (2009). Young children’s responses to September 11th: The New York City experience. Infant Mental Health Journal, 30, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20200
Low, J., & Durkin, K. (2001). Children’s conceptualization of law enforcement on television and in real life. Legal & Criminological Psychology, 6, 197-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02435.x
McAra, L., & McVie, S. (2010). Youth crime and justice: Key messages from the Edinburgh study of youth transitions and crime. Criminology and Criminal Justice 10(2), 179-209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895809360971
McGarty, C., Yzertbyt, V.Y., & Spears, R. (2002). Social, cultural and cognitive factors in stereotype formation. In C. McGarty, & R. Spears (Eds.), Stereotypes as explanations. The formation of meaningful about social groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489877.002
Meyer, M.E. (2012). New directions in critical television studies: Exploring text, audience, and production in communication scholarship. Communication Studies, 63(3), 263-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2012.684291
Moretz, W.J. (1980). Kids to cops ‘We think you’re important, but we’re not sure we understand you’. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 8(2), 220-224.
Nihart, T., Lersch, K.M., Sellers, C.S., & Mieczkowski, T. (2005). Kids, cops, parents and teachers: exploring juvenile attitudes toward authority figures. Western Criminology Review, 6(1), 79-88.
Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives. New York: Basic Books.
Pfefferbaum, B., Phebe, T., & Rose, L. (2018). Media effects in youth exposed to terrorist incidents: A historical perspective, child and family disaster psychiatry. Current Psychiatry Reports, 20(11), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0875-1
Sindall, K., McCarthy, D.J., & Brunton-Smith, I. (2016). Young people and the formation of attitudes towards the police. European Journal of Criminology, 14(3), 344-364. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370816661739
Van-Deth, J.W., Abendschön, S., & Vollmar, M. (2011). Children and politics: an empirical reassessment of early political socialization. Political Psychology, 32(1), 147-173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2010.00798.x
Esta investigación se ha financiado dentro del convenio de colaboración de la Universidad de Cádiz y el Centro Nacional de Inteligencia. Se ha recibido ayuda económica parcial del INDESS (Instituto Universitario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Social Sostenible), Universidad de Cádiz, España.
Publication date: 01-07-2018
Article revision time: 56 days | Average time revision issue 56: 43 days
Article acceptance time: 101 days | Average time of acceptance issue 56: 115 days
Preprint editing time: 164 days | Average editing time preprint issue 56: 178 days
Article editing time: 209 days | Average editing time issue 56: 223 days
Metrics of this article
Abstract readings: 25024
PDF downloads: 2301
Full metrics of Comunicar 56
Abstract readings: 281987
PDF downloads: 71784
Cites in Web of Science
Buil-Gil, David; Gomez-Bellvis, Ana B.; Javier Castro-Toledo, Fco; . Waiting in the wings. Thoughts about the First Meeting of Early Career Researchers in Criminology INTERNATIONAL E-JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL SCIENCES, 2019.
Pattier, Daniel; . The Gender Gap Among EduTubers and the Factors Significantly Influencing It RIED-REVISTA IBEROAMERICANA DE EDUCACION A DISTANCIA, 2021.
Cites in Scopus
Pattier, D. . The Gender Gap Among EduTubers and the Factors Significantly Influencing It), Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, .
Cites in Google Scholar
No, A. V. (2020). Social media.
Buil-Gil, D., Gómez-Bellvis, A. B., & Castro-Toledo, F. J. (2019). Waiting in the wings. Thoughts about the First Meeting of Early Career Researchers in Criminology/«Waiting in the wings». Reflexiones del I Encuentro de Jóvenes Investigadores en Criminología. International E-journal of Criminal Sciences, (14).
Gil, D. B., Bellvís, A. B. G., & Toledo, F. J. C. (2019). «Waiting in the wings»: Reflexiones del I Encuentro de Jóvenes Investigadores en Criminología. International e-journal of criminal sciences, (14), 1.
How to cite
Díaz-Fernández, A., & del-Real-Castrillo, C. (2018). Spies and security: Assessing the impact of animated videos on intelligence services in school children. [Espías y seguridad: Evaluación del impacto de vídeos animados sobre los servicios de inteligencia en escolares]. Comunicar, 56, 81-89. https://doi.org/10.3916/C56-2018-08