Ключевые слова

Credibility, social networking sites, social network analysis, news consumption, information search, experiment, quantitative analysis, influence

Резюме

In this paper, we wish to examine the perceived credibility of news items shared through Social Networking Sites (SNS) –specifically, as a function of tie strength and perceived credibility of the media source from which the content originated. We utilized a between-subjects design. The Facebook account of each participant (N=217) was analyzed. Based on this analysis, our participants were shown a fictitious Facebook post that was presumably shared by one of their Facebook friends with whom they had either a strong social tie (experiment group), or a weak social tie (control group). All recipients were then asked about their perceptions regarding the news source (from which the item presumably originated), and their perception regarding thecredibility of the presented item. Our findings indicate that the strength of the social tie between the sharer of the item and its recipient mediates the effect of the credibility perception regarding the news source, and the perceived item credibility, as well as the likelihood of searching for additional information regarding the topic presented in the shared item.

Посмотреть инфографику

Ссылки

Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211-236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Hayat, T. (2017). Social Networking. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0170

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Anspach, N.M. (2017). The new personal influence: How our Facebook friends influence the news we read. Political Communication, 34(4), 590-606. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2017.1316329

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Aron, A., Aron, E.N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of other in the self-scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 596-612. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.4.596

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Azran, T., Lavie-Dinur, A., & Karniel, Y. (2012). Accent and prejudice: Israelis' blind assessment of Al-Jazeera English news items. Global Media Journal: Mediterranean Edition, 7(2), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501300196.ch-012

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bakir, V., & McStay, A. (2018). Fake news and the economy of emotions: Problems, causes, solutions. Digital Journalism 6(2), 154-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Berrocal-Gonzalo, S., Campos-Dominguez, E., & Redondo-García, M. (2014). Media prosumers in political communication: Politainment on YouTube. [Prosumidores mediáticos en la comunicación política: El ‘politainment’ en YouTube]. Comunicar, 22, 65-72. https://doi.org/10.3916/C43-2014-06

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Borah, P. (2014). The hyperlinked world: A look at how the interactions of news frames and hyperlinks influence news credibility and willingness to seek information. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(3), 576-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12060

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Dawson, J.F. (2014). Moderation in management research: What, why, when, and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-013-9308-7

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G* Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4),1149-1160. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Flanagin, A.J., & Metzger, M.J. (2007). The role of site features, user attributes, and information verification behaviors on the perceived credibility of web-based information. New Media & Society, 9(2), 319-342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444807075015

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Frier, S. (2017). Facebook stumbles with early effort to stamp out fake news. Bloomberg. https://bloom.bg/2z2fLzH

Link Google Scholar

García-Galera, M.C., & Valdivia, A. (2014). Media prosumers. Participatory culture of audiences and media responsibility. [Prosumidores mediáticos. Cultura participativa de las audiencias y responsabilidad de los medios]. Comunicar, 22, 10-13. https://doi.org/10.3916/C43-2014-a2

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gaziano, C., & McGrath, K. (1986). Measuring the concept of credibility. Journalism quarterly, 63(3),451-462. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908606300301

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gilbert, E., & Karahalios, K. (2009). Predicting tie strength with social media. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 211-220). https://doi.org/10.1145/1518701.1518736

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gunther, A.C. (1992). Biased press or biased public? Attitudes toward media coverage of social groups. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56(2),147-167. https://doi.org/10.1086/269308

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Harmon, R.R., & Coney, K.A. (1982). The persuasive effects of source credibility in buy and lease situations. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(2) 255-260. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151625

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Harris, L., & Dennis, C. (2011). Engaging customers on Facebook: Challenges for e?retailers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(6), 338-346. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.375

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayat, T., & Hershkovitz, A. (2018). The role social cues play in mediating the effect of eWOM over purchasing intentions: An exploratory analysis among university students. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 17(3), 173-187. https://doi.org/10.1362/147539218X15434304746027

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayat, T., & Samuel-Azran, T. (2017). ‘You too, second screeners?’ Second screeners’ echo chambers during the 2016 us elections primaries. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 61(2), 291-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2017.1309417

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayat, T., Hershkovitz, A., & Samuel-Azran, T. (2018). The independent reinforcement effect: Diverse social ties and the credibility assessment process. Public Understanding of Science, 28(2),1-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662518812282

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayat, T., Samuel-Azran, T., & Galily, Y. (2016). Al-Jazeera sport’s US Twitter followers: Sport-politics nexus? Online information review, 40(6), 785-797. https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-01-2016-0033

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hovland, C.I., Janis, I.L., & Kelley, H.H. (1953). Communication and persuasion: Psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/2087772

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

John, N.A., & Dvir-Gvirsman, S. (2015). ‘I don't like you any more’: Facebook unfriending by Israelis during the Israel–Gaza Conflict of 2014. Journal of Communication, 65(6), 953-974.https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12188

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Johnson, T.J., & Kaye, B.K. (1998). Cruising is believing?: Comparing Internet and traditional sources on media credibility measures. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 75(2), 325-340.https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909807500208

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Johnson, T.J., & Kaye, B.K. (2014). Credibility of social network sites for political information among politically interested internet users. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(4), 957-974. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12084

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Krämer, N.C., Rösner, L., Eimler, S.C., Winter, S., & Neubaum, G. (2014). Let the weakest link go! Empirical explorations on the relative importance of weak and strong ties on social networking sites. Societies, 4(4), 785-809. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc4040785

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ladd, J.M. (2013). The era of media distrust and its consequences for perceptions of political reality. In T.N. Ridout (Ed.), New directions in media and politics (pp. 24-44). London: Routledge.

Link Google Scholar

McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 233-346). New York: Random House. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315784786

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital culture and politics (pp. 223-234): New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-62965-7_12

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Romero-Rodríguez, L.M., Torres-Toukoumidis, D.A., Pérez-Rodríguez, M.A., & Aguaded, I. (2016). Analfanauts and fourth screen: Lack of infodiets and media and information literacy in Latin American university students. Fonseca, 12, 11-25. https://doi.org/10.14201/fjc2016121125

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Salmon, C.T. (1986). Perspectives on involvement in consumer and communication research. Progress in communication sciences, 7, 243-268. http://bit.ly/2CRQR74

Link Google Scholar

Samuel-Azran, T. (2016). Intercultural communication as a clash of civilizations: Al-Jazeera and Qatar's Soft Power. New York: Peter Lang. https://doi.org/10.3726/b10476

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Samuel-Azran, T., & Hayat, T. (2017). Counter-hegemonic contra-flow and the Al Jazeera America fiasco: A social network analysis of Al Jazeera America’s Twitter users. Global Media and Communication, 13(3), 267-282. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742766517734255

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017, September 7). News use across social media platforms 2017. Pew Research Center. https://pewrsr.ch/2vMCQWO

Link Google Scholar

Sherif, M., & Hovland, C.I. (1961). Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. Oxford: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.1086/223278

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Silverman, C., Strapagiel, L., Shaban, H., Hall, E., & Singer-Vine, J. (2016). Hyperpartisan Facebook pages are publishing false and misleading information at an alarming rate. Buzzfeed News. https://bit.ly/2NKyHZ7

Link Google Scholar

Turcotte, J., York, C., Irving, J., Scholl, R.M., & Pingree, R.J. (2015). News recommendations from social media opinion leaders: Effects on media trust and information seeking. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(5), 520-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12127

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Vosoughi, S., Roy, D., & Aral, S. (2018). The spread of true and false news online. Science, 359(6380), 1146-1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Fundref

Эта работа не имеет финансовой поддержки

Crossmark

Техническая спецификация

Получила: 18-12-2018

пересмотренный: 19-01-2019

Принятый: 20-02-2019

OnlineFirst: 15-05-2019

Дата публикации: 01-07-2019

Время пересмотра статьи: 32 дней | Среднее время пересмотра вопроса 60: 48 дней

Время принятия статьи: 64 дней | Время приема Номер 60: 64 дней

Время редактирования препринта: 149 дней | Выпуск препринта среднего времени редактирования 60: 149 дней

Время редактирования статьи: 194 дней | Среднее время редактирования журнала 60: 194 дней

метрика

Метрики этой статьи

Просмотров: 24154

Ознакомление с аннотациями: 21401

загрузки PDF-файлов: 2753

Полные метрики 60

Просмотров: 255372

Ознакомление с аннотациями: 209227

загрузки PDF-файлов: 46145

Цитируется

Цитаты в Web of Science

Civila de Dios, Sabina; Romero-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Aguaded, Ignacio; . Language as a creator of realities and public opinion: Critical analysis in the context of the current media ecosystem ICONOS, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.17141/iconos.67.2020.3942

Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Claudia; Rivera-Rogel, Diana; Romero-Rodriguez, Luis M.; . Information Quality in Latin American Digital Native Media: Analysis Based on Structured Dimensions and Indicators INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i2.2657

Nanne, Annemarie J.; Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; van Noort, Guda;. The role of facial expression and tie strength in sender presence effects on consumers' brand responses towards visual brand-related user generated content COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR , 2021.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106628

Mora-Rodriguez, Alberto; Melero-Lopez, Inmaculada;. News consumption and risk perception of Covid-19 in Spain COMUNICAR , 2021.

https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-06

Golob, Tea; Makarovic, Matej; Rek, Mateja; . Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation SOCIOLOGY-THE JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09

Tejedor, Santiago; Portales-Oliva, Marta; Carniel-Bugs, Ricardo; Cervi, Laura; . Journalism Students and Information Consumption in the Era of Fake News Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v9i1.3516

Romero-Rodriguez, LM; Razo, ALV and Castillo-Abdul, B. HUMOR AND SATIRE FAKE NEWS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS POLITICS: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED REALISM AND FEELINGS OF EFFICACY, ALIENATION AND CYNICISM IN COMMUNICATION STUDENTS OBETS-REVISTA DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.14198/OBETS2021.16.2.15

Цитаты в Scopus

Rodríguez-Hidalgo, C., Rivera-Rogel, D., Romero-Rodríguez, L.M. . Information quality in Latin American digital native media: Analysis based on structured dimensions and indicators), Media and Communication, .

https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i2.2657

de-Casas, P., Vizcaíno-Verdú, A., Aguaded, I. . Sensationalist television and consumer habits in Spain and Italy | [La televisión sensacionalista y hábitos de consumo en España e Italia]), Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodistico, .

https://doi.org/10.5209/esmp.67582

Nanne, A.J., Antheunis, M.L., van Noort, G. . The role of facial expression and tie strength in sender presence effects on consumers’ brand responses towards visual brand-related user generated content), Computers in Human Behavior, .

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106628

Mora-Rodríguez, A., Melero-López, I. . News consumption and risk perception of Covid-19 in Spain | [Seguimiento informativo y percepción del riesgo ante la Covid-19 en España]), Comunicar, .

https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-06

Golob, T., Makarovi, M., Rek, M. . Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation | [Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación]), Comunicar, .

https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09

Lopez, F.C., Correa, G.G. . Credibility on facebook among mothers who follow a page about raising and down syndrome | [Credibilidad en facebook entre madres seguidoras de una página sobre crianza y síndrome de down]), RISTI - Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao, .

Link Google Scholar

Tejedor, S., Portalés-Oliva, M., Carniel-Bugs, R., Cervi, L. . Journalism students and information consumption in the era of fake news), Media and Communication, .

https://doi.org/10.17645/MAC.V9I1.3516

de Dios, S.C., Romero-Rodríguez, L.M., Aguaded, I. . Language as a creator of realities and public opinion: Critical analysis in the context of the current media ecosystem | [El lenguaje como creador de realidades y opinión pública: Análisis crítico a la luz del actual ecosistema mediático]), Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, .

https://doi.org/10.17141/iconos.67.2020.3942

Alcalá-Santaella, M., Alcolea-Díaz, G., Navarro-Sierra, N. . Credibility and interest factors of news in the (dis)information landscape | [Factores de credibilidad e interés de las noticias en el paisaje (des)informativo]), Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodistico, .

https://doi.org/10.5209/ESMP.71280

Guan, T., Liu, T., Yuan, R. . Facing disinformation: Five methods to counter conspiracy theories amid the Covid-19 pandemic | [Combatiendo la desinformación: Cinco métodos para contrarrestar las teorías de conspiración en la pandemia de Covid-19]), Comunicar, .

https://doi.org/10.3916/C69-2021-06

Torres, B.F., Rodríguez, A.P., Díaz, R.C. . The credibility of social media and ethical implications for young people | [Credibilidad e implicaciones éticas de las redes sociales para los jóvenes]), Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social, .

https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2021-1512

Romero-Rodríguez, L.M., Castillo-Abdul, B., Valle Razo, A.L. . Humor and satire fake news and attitudes towards politics: Comparative analysis of perceived realism and feelings of efficacy, alienation and cynicism in communication students | [Fake news de humor y sÁtira y actitudes hacia la polÍtica: AnÁlisis comparativo del realismo percibido y los sentimientos de eficacia, alienaciÓn y cinismo en estudiantes de comunicaciÓn]), OBETS, .

https://doi.org/10.14198/OBETS2021.16.2.15

Цитаты в Google Scholar

Samuel-Azran, T., & Hayat, T. (2019). Facebook Chatter during Food Industry Product Harm Crisis. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 8(2), 103-122.

http://thejsms.org/index.php/TSMRI/article/view/601

Muela-Molina, C., Romero-Rodríguez, L. M., & Business, E. S. A. I. (2020). THE IRRESPONSIBLE SELF-REGULATION OF MEDIA IN SPAIN: HIGH-GRADE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE ADVERTISING IN SPORTS RADIO PROGRAMMES. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 23(1).

...

Indrajaya, S. E., & Lukitawati, L. (2019). Tingkat Kepercayaan Generasi Z terhadap Berita Infografis dan Berita Ringkas di Media Sosial. Jurnal Komunikasi, 11(2), 169-182.

http://journal.untar.ac.id/index.php/komunikasi/article/view/5045

Hidalgo, C. R., Rivera-Rogel, D., & Romero-Rodríguez, L. M. (2020). Information quality in Latin American digital native media: Analysis based on structured dimensions and indicators. Media and Communication, 8(2), 135-145.

https://www.cogitatiopress.com/mediaandcommunication/article/view/2657

Civila, S., Romero-Rodriguez, L. M., & Aguaded, I. (2020). El lenguaje como creador de realidades y opinión pública: análisis crítico a la luz del actual ecosistema mediático. Íconos-Revista De Ciencias Sociales, (67), 139-157.

https://revistas.flacsoandes.edu.ec/iconos/article/view/3942

Rodríguez-Hidalgo, C., Rivera-Rogel, D., & Romero-Rodríguez, L. M. (2020). Information quality in Latin American digital native media: Analysis based on structured dimensions and indicators. Media and Communication, 8(2), 135-145.

https://www.cogitatiopress.com/mediaandcommunication/article/view/2657

de Dios, S. C., Romero-Rodríguez, L. M., & Aguaded, I. (2020). El lenguaje como creador de realidades y opinión pública: análisis crítico a la luz del actual ecosistema mediático. Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, (67), 139-157.

http://scielo.senescyt.gob.ec/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1390-12492020000200139

de-Casas-Moreno, P., Vizcaíno-Verdú, A., & Aguaded, I. (2020). La televisión sensacionalista y hábitos de consumo en España e Italia. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodistico, 26(2), 483.

...

Herring, M. M. (2020). Curbing the Spread of Disinformation Through User Interface Design.

https://digitalcommons.trinity.edu/comm_honors/19/

Mora-Rodríguez, A., & Melero-López, I. (1988). Seguimiento informativo y percepción del riesgo ante la Covid-19 en España. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(66).

https://www.revistacomunicar.com/indice/abstract.php?numero=66-2021-06

Erstad, O., Miño, R., & Rivera-Vargas, P. (1988). Prácticas educativas para transformar y conectar escuelas y comunidades. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(66).

...

Schleifer, P., Bergero, F., Kejner, J., & Gonzalez, O. (2021). Prácticas informativas en tiempos de Covid-19: procesos de promoción de la salud y derecho a la información en el norte de la Patagonia argentina.

http://rdi.uncoma.edu.ar/handle/123456789/16096

Schleifer, P., Bergero, F., Kejner, J., & Gonzalez, O. (2020). Prácticas informativas en tiempos de Covid-19: procesos de promoción de la salud y derecho a la información en el norte de la Patagonia argentina. Liinc em Revista, 16(2), e5248-e5248.

http://revista.ibict.br/liinc/article/view/5248

Rojas Garcia, K. Z. (2020). Análisis de la calidad informativa sobre las noticias de salud mental en el cibermedio peruano El Comercio durante el periodo julio-diciembre, 2019.

http://repositorio.ucv.edu.pe/handle/20.500.12692/49943

Mora-Rodríguez, A., & Melero-López, I. Seguimiento informativo y percepción del riesgo ante la Covid-19 en España. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(66), 71-81.

https://www.revistacomunicar.com/index.php?contenido=preimpreso&doi=10.3916/C66-2021-06

Golob, T., Makarovič, M., & Rek, M. (1988). Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(66), 107-118.

...

Nanne, A. J., Antheunis, M. L., & van Noort, G. (2020). The role of facial expression and tie strength in sender presence effects on consumers’ brand responses towards visual brand-related user generated content. Computers in Human Behavior, 106628.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563220303757

Golob, T., Makarovič, M., & Rek, M. (1988). Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation. Comunicar, 29(66), 107-118.

...

Lopez, F. C., & Correa, G. G. (2021). Credibilidad en Facebook entre madres seguidoras de una página sobre crianza y síndrome de Down. Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação, (E40), 92-102.

...

Mora-Rodríguez, A., & Melero-López, I. (2021). News consumption and risk perception of Covid-19 in Spain. Comunicar, 29(66), 71-81.

http://eprints.rclis.org/40904/

Civila de Dios, S., Romero Rodríguez, L. M., & Aguaded, I. El lenguaje como creador de realidades y opinión pública: análisis crítico a la luz del actual ecosistema mediático.

https://repositorio.flacsoandes.edu.ec/handle/10469/16206

Golob, T., Makarovič, M., & Rek, M. (2021). Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(66), 107-118.

https://www.revistacomunicar.com/index.php?contenido=preimpreso&doi=10.3916/C66-2021-09

de Dios, S. C., Romero-Rodríguez, L. M., & Aguaded, I. (2020). Language as a creator of realities and public opinion: Critical analysis in the context of the current media ecosystem. Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, (67), 139-157.

...

Tejedor, S., Portalés-Oliva, M., Carniel-Bugs, R., & Cervi, L. (2021). Journalism Students and Information Consumption in the Era of Fake News. Media and Communication, 9(1), 338-350.

https://www.cogitatiopress.com/mediaandcommunication/article/view/3516

Golob, T., Makarovič, M., & Rek, M. (2021). Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation. Comunicar, 29(66), 107-118.

http://eprints.rclis.org/40911/

Скачать

Альтернативные метрики

Как процитировать

Samuel-Azran, T., & Hayat, T. (2019). Online news recommendations credibility: The tie is mightier than the source. [La credibilidad de las noticias digitales: El vínculo es más impactante que la fuente]. Comunicar, 60, 71-80. https://doi.org/10.3916/C60-2019-07

Доля

           

Почтовый ящик 527

21080 Уэльва (Испания)

Администрация

Редакция

Creative Commons

Данный сайт использует куки-файлы для получения статистических данных о навигации своих пользователей. Если вы продолжите просмотр, мы считаем, что вы принимаете его использование. +info X