Keywords

Teens, immigrants, press, content analysis, text mining, MENA

Abstract

This article analyses Spanish media treatment of a certain type of immigrant: the unaccompanied foreign minor ('MENA' in Spanish). The media play an important role in creating and disseminating ideas and images amongst the general public, thereby promoting the articulation of sets of meanings called discourses. The main goal of this research is to identify the discursive approaches that have been constructed around the term “MENA” in the main Spanish daily newspapers. To this end, we gathered and analysed all the news reports published between January 2017 and October 2019 by the digital editions of the four most widely-read newspapers in Spain (La Vanguardia, El País, El Mundo and ABC). This analysis was performed using text mining techniques (an important field in data science) such as term frequency, inverse document frequency, and correlation networks between words. Our results show that the term “MENA” evokes a criminalising, moralistic, welfare-dependent discourse that is articulated from an adult-centric, nationalist perspective. The study concluded that the conservative press uses the acronym more frequently than the left-wing media. However, no significant discursive differences were observed between conservative and progressive press in terms of the language used, which often had negative connotations that stigmatised the young people concerned.

View infography

References

Andersson, R. (2014). Time and the migrant other: European border controls and the temporal economics of illegality. American Anthropologist, 116(4), 795-809. https://doi.org/10.1111/aman.12148

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Balzacq, T. (2005). The three faces of securitization: political agency, audience and context. European Journal of International Relations, 11(2), 171-201. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066105052960

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Benson, R. (2013). Shaping immigration news: A French-American comparison. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139034326

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bhabha, J., Kanics, J., & Senovilla, H.D. (2018). Research handbook on child migration. Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781786433701.00007

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bleich, E., Bloemraad, I., & de-Graauw, E. (2015). Migrants, minorities and the media: Information, representations and participation in the public sphere. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(6), 857-878. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2014.1002197

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Boeva, A. (2016). Discursive construction of refugees, migrants and asylum seekers in British and American news sources. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 236, 53-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.12.018

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bourbeau, P. (2011). The securitization of migration: A study of movement and order. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203829349

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Buzan, B. (2007). People, states and fear: And agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era. ECPR. https://bit.ly/2YYvMDq

Link Google Scholar

Checa-Olmos, J., & Arjona-Garrido, Á. (2011). Spaniards’ perspective of immigration. The role of the media. [Españoles ante la inmigración: El papel de los medios de comunicación]. Comunicar, 37, 141-149. https://doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-03-06

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Colectivo IOÉ (Ed.) (1995). Discursos de los españoles sobre los extranjeros Paradojas de la alteridad. Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales. https://bit.ly/3gsXo9k

Link Google Scholar

Dines, N., Montagna, N., & Ruggiero, V. (2015). Thinking Lampedusa: border construction, the spectacle of bare life and the productivity of migrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(3), 430-445. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2014.936892

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Doménech, E. (2013). Las migraciones son como el agua: Hacia la instauración de políticas de «control con rostro humano». La gobernabilidad migratoria en la Argentina [Migration is like water: Towards policy establishment 'control with a human face'. The governance of migration in Argentina]. Polis, 12(35), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-65682013000200006

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Doná, G., & Veale, A. (2011). Divergent discourses, children and forced migration. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 37(8), 1273-1289. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2011.590929

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Eberl, J.M., Meltzer, C.E., Heidenreich, T., Herrero, B., Theorin, N., Lind, F., Berganza, R., Boomgaarden, H.G., Schemer, C., & Strömbäck, J. (2018). The European media discourse on immigration and its effects: a literature review. Annals of the International Communication Association, 42(3), 207–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2018.1497452

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Fiscalía General del Estado (Ed.) (2020). Memoria del año 2019. Imprenta Nacional de la Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. https://bit.ly/2VKtxBk

Link Google Scholar

Gimeno, C. (2013). El orden y la gente: Los menores migrantes no acompañados. In M. Fernández (Ed.), Negociaciones identitarias (pp. 25-36). Commonground Publishing. https://bit.ly/30m8EOH

Link Google Scholar

Gimeno, C. (2018). Retos de la acogida residencial a menores que migran solos: hacia un trabajo social transnacional. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 31(1), 95-108. https://doi.org/10.5209/CUTS.56005

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Giovannetti, M. (2016). I comuni e le politiche di accoglienza dei minori stranieri non accompagnati. Cittalia - ANCI. https://bit.ly/2NQh4rI

Link Google Scholar

Gutiérrez-Brito, J. (2010). Introducción a la lógica del análisis del discurso. In G.J. Callejo (Eds.), Introducción a las técnicas de investigación social (pp. 245-264). Ramón Areces. https://bit.ly/2VFqBpR

Link Google Scholar

Hoekstra, M. (2015). Diverse cities and good citizenship: how local governments in the Netherlands recast national integration discourse. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(10), 1798-1814. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2015.1015585

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Horsti, K. (2003). Global mobility and the media. Nordicom Review, 24(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1515/nor-2017-0296

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Horsti, K. (2012). Humanitarian discourse legitimating migration control: FRONTEX public communication. In M. Messer, R. Schroeder, & R. Wodak (Ed), Migrations: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 297-308). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0950-2_27

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Knezevic, Z. (2017). Amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal: Children's moral status in child welfare. Childhood, 24(4), 470-484. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568217711742

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Koziner, N.S. (2013). Antecedentes y fundamentos de la teoría del framing en comunicación. Austral comunicación, 2(1), 01-25. https://doi.org/10.26422/aucom.2013.0201.koz

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Llorent-Bedmar, V. (2012). The educational role of the digital media in the integration of immigrants in Spain: El mundo.es and El pais.com. [El papel educativo de la prensa digital ante la integración de los inmigrantes en España: El mundo.es y El pais.com]. Comunicar, 38, 139-146. https://doi.org/10.3916/C38-2012-03-05

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Martínez-Nicolás, M., Humanes, M.L., & Saperas-Lapiedra, E. (2014). La mediatización de la política en el periodismo español. Análisis longitudinal de la información política en la prensa de referencia (1980-2010). Trípodos, 1(34), 41-59. https://bit.ly/3aNRqN2

Link Google Scholar

Mateo, J.L. (2017). «Moros vienen». Historia y política de un estereotipo. Instituto de las Culturas. https://bit.ly/38p1ixg

Link Google Scholar

Menjívar, C., & Perreira, K.M. (2017). Undocumented and unaccompanied: children of migration in the European Union and the United States. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(2), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2017.1404255

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Miller, J. (2006). Who’s telling the News? Racial representation among news gatherers in Canada’s Daily Newsrooms. International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, 5(4), 133-142. https://doi.org/10.18848/1447-9532/cgp/v05i04/39084

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Perelló, M.I., & Lacomba, J. (2020). Las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en fronteras de alta migración. Entre el humanitarismo y la defensa de derechos. REMHU,28(58), 13-32. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-85852503880005802

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Peris, L.F. (2015). La tutela trasnazionale condivisa come superiore interesse dei minori stranieri non accompagnati con vincoli familiari. [Doctoral dissertation]. Sapienza Universitá di Roma. https://bit.ly/3hbmDxn

Link Google Scholar

Piñuel-Raigada, J.L. (2002). Epistemología, metodología y técnicas del análisis de contenido. [Epistemology, methodology and content analysis techniques], Estudios de Sociolingüística. 3(1), 1-42. https://bit.ly/2SicmFL

Link Google Scholar

Quiroga, V. (2010). Sueños de bolsillo. Menores migrantes no acompañados/as en España. Unicef-Banesto. https://bit.ly/2VKSdda

Link Google Scholar

Rigoni, I., & Saitta, E. (2012). Mediating cultural diversity in a globalised public space. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137283405

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rosen, R., & Crafter, S. (2018). Media Representations of separated child migrants: From dubs to doubt. Migration and Society, 1(1), 66-81. https://doi.org/10.3167/arms.2018.010107

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Santamaría, E. (2002). La incógnita del extraño: una aproximación a la significación sociológica de la inmigración no comunitaria. Anthropos Editorial. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/athenead/v1n1.40

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Save the Children (Ed.) (2018). Los más solos. Save the Children España. https://bit.ly/2NWsoCK

Link Google Scholar

Sigona, N., Chase, E., & Humphris, R. (2017). Protecting the best interests of the child in transition to adulthood. Becoming Adult Research Brief. UCL. https://bit.ly/2VbYO0y

Link Google Scholar

Silge, J., & Robinson, D. (2019). Text mining with R: A tidy approach. O´Reilly. https://bit.ly/2ST4UjS

Link Google Scholar

Suárez, L. (2004). Niños entre fronteras: migración de menores no acompañados en el Mediterráneo occidental. Migración y Desarrollo, 2(2), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.35533/myd.0202.lsn

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Terwal, J. (1996). The social representation of immigrants: The Pantanella issue in the pages of ‘La Repubblica’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 22(1), 39-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.1996.9976521

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Thorbjørnsrud, K., & Ustad-Figenschou, T. (2014). Do marginalized sources matter? Journalism Studies, 17(3), 337-355. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2014.987549

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ticktin, M. (2015). Los problemas de las fronteras humanitarias. [The problems with humanitarian borders]. Disparidades: Revista de antropología, 70(2), 291-297. https://doi.org/10.3989/rdtp.2015.02.001.03

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-Dijk, T.A. (2005). Nuevo racismo y noticias. In M. Nash, N. Benach-Rovira, R. Tello-i-Robira (Eds.), Inmigración, género y espacios urbanos: Los retos de la diversidad (pp. 33-55). Bellaterra. https://bit.ly/3f4QTd1

Link Google Scholar

Van-Gorp, B. (2005). Where is the frame? Victims and intruders in the Belgian press coverage of the asylum issue. European journal of communication, 20(4), 484-507. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323105058253

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Velasco, J.C. (2016). Open-Border immigration policy: A step towards global justice. Migraciones Internacionales, 8(4), 41-72. https://bit.ly/3jgvGiE

Link Google Scholar

Vickers, T., & Rutter, A. (2016). Disposable labour, passive victim, active threat: Migrant/non-migrant othering in three British television documentaries. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 21(4), 486-501. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549416682968

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Technical information

Received: 30-04-2020

Revised: 24-05-2020

Accepted: 03-07-2020

OnlineFirst: 15-11-2020

Publication date: 01-01-2021

Article revision time: 24 days | Average time revision issue 66: 16 days

Article acceptance time: 64 days | Average time of acceptance issue 66: 51 days

Preprint editing time: 201 days | Average editing time preprint issue 66: 193 days

Article editing time: 246 days | Average editing time issue 66: 238 days

Metrics

Metrics of this article

Views: 21906

Abstract readings: 18785

PDF downloads: 3121

Full metrics of Comunicar 66

Views: 225495

Abstract readings: 196152

PDF downloads: 29343

Cited by

Cites in Web of Science

Gomez-Garcia, Salvador; Paz-Rebollo, Maria-Antonia; Cabeza-San-Deogracias, Jose;. Newsgames against hate speech in the refugee crisis COMUNICAR , 2021.

https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-10

Jaramillo-Dent, Daniela; Contreras-Pulido, Paloma; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Amor;. Right-wing immigration narratives in Spain: A study of persuasion on Instagram Stories EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION , 2021.

https://doi.org/10.1177/02673231211012157

Guerrero-Martin, Inigo; Igartua, Juan-Jose;. Reduction of prejudice toward unaccompanied foreign minors through audiovisual narratives. Effects of the similarity and of the narrative voice PROFESIONAL DE LA INFORMACION , 2021.

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.03

Cites in Scopus

Guerrero-Martín, I., Igartua, J.-J. . Reduction of prejudice toward unaccompanied foreign minors through audiovisual narratives. Effects of the similarity and of the narrative voice), Profesional de la Informacion, .

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.03

Jaramillo-Dent, D., Contreras-Pulido, P., Pérez-Rodríguez, M.A. . Right-wing immigration narratives in Spain: A study of persuasion on Instagram Stories), European Journal of Communication, .

https://doi.org/10.1177/02673231211012157

Cites in Google Scholar

Gómez-García, S., Paz-Rebollo, M. A., & Cabeza-San-Deogracias, J. (2021). Newsgames against hate speech in the refugee crisis. Comunicar, 29(67).

http://eprints.rclis.org/40922/

Guerrero-Martín, I., & Igartua, J. J. (2021). Reduction of prejudice toward unaccompanied foreign minors through audiovisual narratives. Effects of the similarity and of the narrative voice. Profesional de la Información, 30(2).

https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86345

Gómez-García, S., Paz-Rebollo, M. A., & Cabeza-San-Deogracias, J. (2021). Newsgames frente a los discursos del odio en la crisis de los refugiados. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 29(67), 123-133.

https://www.revistacomunicar.com/index.php?contenido=preimpreso&doi=10.3916/C67-2021-10

Jaramillo-Dent, D., Contreras-Pulido, P., & Pérez-Rodríguez, M. A. (2021). Right-wing immigration narratives in Spain: A study of persuasion on Instagram Stories. European Journal of Communication, 02673231211012157.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/02673231211012157

Rodríguez, J. A. M. (2021). COMUNICACIÓN PÚBLICA E IMAGEN MEDIÁTICA EN EL ÁMBITO LOCAL: EL CASO DE LA POLICÍA LOCAL DE GRANADA.

...

Pérez Ramos, K. (2021). (Re) conociendo prejuicios.

https://riull.ull.es/xmlui/handle/915/24132

Ramírez, M. G., & de Travesedo Rojas, R. G. (2022). Estrategia discursiva sobre los MENA en YouTube. Construcción de un discurso de odio. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, (80), 259-285.

http://nuevaepoca.revistalatinacs.org/index.php/revista/article/view/1697

Baños, R. V., Niella, M. F., Martí, A. S., & Gomà, M. M. (2021). Child and Adolescent Care Services: Addressing the Vulnerability of Unaccompanied Minors in Barcelona. In Handbook of Research on Promoting Social Justice for Immigrants and Refugees Through Active Citizenship and Intercultural Education (pp. 16-36). IGI Global.

https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/child-and-adolescent-care-services/282305

Gómez García, S., Paz Rebollo, M. A., & Cabeza San Deogracias, J. (2021). Newsgames frente a los discursos del odio en la crisis de los refugiados. Comunicar: revista científica iberoamericana de comunicación y educación.

https://redined.educacion.gob.es/xmlui/handle/11162/207020

Martín, I. G. (2021). El rol de la voz narrativa y la similitud con el protagonista en narraciones diseñadas para reducir el prejuicio hacia inmigrantes estigmatizados (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Salamanca).

...

Lloret, C. M. El estado del arte de la ciencia de datos en el idioma español y su aplicación en el campo de la Inteligencia Artificial.

https://assets.pubpub.org/entfx958/f5257ea7-1031-43da-b6a3-8b469bd399c2.pdf

Gimeno Gimeno, I. (2021). Discriminación y desinformación en tiempos de pandemia: un análisis crítico del discurso de las fake news en España durante el COVID-19.

http://rua.ua.es/dspace/handle/10045/116966

Lloret, C. M. State of the art of data science in Spanish language and its application in the eld of AI.

https://assets.pubpub.org/yf4d2y6x/4a261345-8baa-4c1a-8463-bed29ffb66f1.pdf

Ducca Cisneros, L. V. (2021). La participación en la intervención grupal con jóvenes y adolescentes en la ciudad de Madrid: entre el control y el empoderamiento.

https://eprints.ucm.es/id/eprint/69392/

Ramírez, M. G., & de Travesedo Rojas, R. G. (2022). Discursive strategy on UFM on YouTube. Construction of a hate speech. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, (80), 259-284.

...

Terrón-Caro, T., Cárdenas-Rodríguez, R., & Ortega-de-Mora, F. (2022). Discourse, Immigration and the Spanish Press: Critical Analysis of the Discourse on the Ceuta and Melilla Border Incident. Societies, 12(2), 56.

https://www.mdpi.com/1564360

De Nolf, A., d’Haenens, L., & Joris, W. Muslim Youth: Representations and Media Consumption. In The Routledge International Handbook of Children, Adolescents, and Media (pp. 371-378). Routledge.

...

Download

Alternative metrics

How to cite

Gómez-Quintero, J., Aguerri, J., & Gimeno-Monterde, C. (2021). Media representation of minors who migrate on their own: The 'MENA' in the Spanish press. [Representaciones mediáticas de los menores que migran solos: Los MENA en la prensa española]. Comunicar, 66, 95-105. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-08

Share

           

Post Office Box 527

21080 Huelva (Spain)

Administration

Editorial office

Creative Commons

This website uses cookies to obtain statistical data on the navigation of its users. If you continue to browse we consider that you accept its use. +info X