Keywords

Advertising, minors, social networks, Instagram, Youtube, advertising literacy

Abstract

This article presents the results of research that seeks to analyze the ability of minors to identify the advertising messages received through the most used social networks by this audience (YouTube and Instagram). Children’s aptitude to recognize persuasive intent was measured in a selection of examples taken for this study, as well as the perception that parents or guardians had about the minor's ability to recognize advertising on the platforms analyzed. Results were obtained from a survey applied to dyads in 501 homes in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile, to children aged 10 to 14 and to one of their parents or guardians. Main results include the notion that more than 50% of children were not able to detect advertising in examples containing ads. Lower recognition percentages were obtained in cases that combined persuasive content and entertainment and were not classified as advertising. For their part, adults perceived that their children recognize persuasive intent to a lesser extent than indicated by the children themselves. An explicit and clear signaling of advertising messages, as well as advertising literacy according to the age of minors could help them discern the content they consume on social networks.

View infography

References

An, S., Jin, H.S., & Park, E.H. (2014). Children's advertising literacy for advergames: Perception of the game as advertising. Journal of Advertising, 43(1), 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2013.795123

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Buijzen, M. (2014). The family´s role in children´s interpretation of advertising. In M. Blades, C. Oates, F. Blumberg, & B. Gunter (Eds.), Advertising to children: New directions, new media (pp. 137-157). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137313256

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P.M. (2003). The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent-child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 437-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00072-8

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Buijzen, M., Van-Reijmersdal, E.A., & Owen, L.H. (2010). Introducing the PCMC Model: An investigative framework for young people’s processing of commercialized media content. Communication Theory, 20(4), 427-450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2010.01370.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Cabello, P., Claro, M., Rojas, R., & Trucco, M. (2019). Children’s and adolescents’ digital access in Chile: The role of digital access modalities in digital uses and skills. Journal of Children and Media, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2020.1744176

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

CONAR (Ed.) (2018). Chilean code of advertising ethics, 6.0 version. https://bit.ly/2Ho2qIt

Link Google Scholar

De-Cicco, R., Lacobucci, S., & Pagliaro, S. (2020). The effect of influencer-product fit on advertising recognition and the role of an enhanced disclosure in increasing sponsorship transparency. International Journal of Advertising, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2020.1801198

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

De-Jans, S., & Hudders, L. (2020). Disclosure of vlog advertising targeted to children. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 52, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2020.03.003

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

De-Jans, S., Van-de-Sompel, D., Hudders, L., & Cauberghe, V. (2017). Advertising targeting young children: An overview of 10 year of research (2006-2016). International Journal of Advertising, 38(2), 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2017.1411056

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Feijoo, B., & García, A. (2019). Children attitude faced with the advertising they receive through their mobile devices. adComunica, 18, 199-218. https://bit.ly/3pOGmbm

Link Google Scholar

Feijoo, B., & Pavez, I. (2019). Audiovisual content with advertising intention in children’s videos on YouTube: The case of the Soy Luna series. Communication & Society, 32(1), 313-331 https://doi.org/10.15581/003.32.1.313-331

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Feijoo, B., Sádaba, C., & Bugueño, S. (2020). Expert or naive level? Detection and confidence by children of the advertising they receive through their mobile devices. User profiles. Zer, 25(48), 231-248. https://doi.org/10.1387/zer.21520

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Goodrich, K., Schiller, S.Z., & Galletta, D. (2015). Consumer reactions to intrusiveness of online-video advertisements: Do length, informativeness, and humor help (or hinder) marketing outcomes? Journal of Advertising Research, 55(1), 37-50. https://doi.org/10.2501/JAR-55-1-037-050

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hudders, L., De-Pauw, P., Cauberghe, V., Panic, K., Zarouali, B., & Rozendaal, E. (2017). Shedding new light on how advertising literacy can affect children's processing of embedded advertising formats: A future research agenda. Journal of Advertising, 46(2), 333-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2016.1269303

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

IAB Spain (Ed.) (2020). Social networks annual study. https://bit.ly/2RuxZSn

Link Google Scholar

Ip, J., Mehta, K.P., & Coveney, J. (2007). Exploring parents’ perceptions of television food advertising directed at children: A South Australian study. Nutrition and Dietetics, 64(1), 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00069.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E.J. (2006). Does advertising literacy mediate the effects of advertising on children? A critical examination of two linked research literatures in relation to obesity and food choice. Journal of Communication, 56(3), 560-584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00301.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mallinckrodt, V., & Mizerski, D. (2007). The effects of playing an advergame on young children’s perceptions, preferences, and requests. Journal of Advertising, 36(2), 87-100. https://doi.org/10.2753/JOA0091-3367360206

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Marti-Pellón, D., & Saunders, P. (2015). Children’s exposure to advertising on games sites in Brazil and Spain. [Exposición infantil a anuncios en webs de juegos de Brasil y de España]. Comunicar, 45, 169-177. https://doi.org/10.3916/C45-2015-18

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Oates, C., Newman, N., & Tziortzi, A. (2014). Parent´s beliefs about, and attitudes towards, marketing to children. In M. Blades, C. Oates, F. Blumberg, & B. Gunter (Eds.), Advertising to children: New directions, new media (pp. 115-136). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137313256

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rozendaal, E., Opree, S.J., & Buijzen, M. (2016). Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy. Media Psychology, 19(1), 72-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2014.885843

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Saraf, V., Jain, N.C., & Singhai, M. (2013). Children and parents' interest in tv advertisements: Elucidating the persuasive intent of advertisements. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43(7), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.17010/ijom/2013/v43/i7/34016

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Truong, Y., & Simmons, G. (2010). Perceived intrusiveness in digital advertising: Strategic marketing implications. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 18(3), 239-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652540903511308

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tur-Viñes, V., Núñez-Gómez, P., & González-Río, M.J. (2018). Kid influencers on YouTube. A space for responsibility. Revista Latina de Comunicacio?n Social, 73, 1211-1230. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2018-1303

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tur-Viñes, V., Núñez-Gómez, P., & Martínez-Pastor, E. (2019). YouTube, children, and collaborative culture. A literature review. Historia y Comunicación Social, 24(1), 331-351. https://doi.org/10.5209/HICS.64498

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tziortzi, A. (2009). The perceived effects of food advertising on children in Cyprus. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Sheffield.

Link Google Scholar

Van-Dam, S., & Van-Reijmersdal, E.A. (2019). Insights in adolescents’ advertising literacy, perceptions and responses regarding sponsored influencer videos and disclosures. Cyberpsychology, 13(2), 2. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2019-2-2

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-Reijmersdal, E.A., & Rozendaal, E. (2020). Transparency of digital native and embedded advertising: Opportunities and challenges for regulation and education. Communications, 45(3), 378-388. https://doi.org/10.1515/commun-2019-0120

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-Reijmersdal, E.A., Rozendaal, E., Smink, N., Van-Noort, G., & Buijzen, M. (2017). Processes and effects of targeted online advertising among children. International Journal of Advertising, 36(3), 396-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2016.1196904

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Vanwesenbeeck, I., Walrave, M., & Ponnet, K. (2017). Children and advergames: The role of product involvement, prior brand attitude, persuasion knowledge and game attitude in purchase intentions and changing attitudes. International Journal of Advertising, 36(4), 520-541. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2016.1176637

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

VTR (Ed.) (2019). Digital Radiography 2019. https://bit.ly/3kowlxU

Link Google Scholar

Watts, L. (2004). The acceptable face of brands in schools. Young Consumers, 6(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/10.1108/17473610510814417

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Young, B.M, De-Bruin, A., & Eagle, L. (2003). Attitudes of parents towards advertising to children in the UK, Sweden and New Zealand. Journal of Marketing Management, 19(3), 475-490. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2003.9728220

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Zarouali, B., De-Pauw, P., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., Poels, K., Cauberghe, V., & Hudders, L. (2019). Considering children’s advertising literacy from a methodological point of view: Past practices and future recommendations. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 40(2), 196-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2018.1503109

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Technical information

Received: 16-09-2020

Revised: 14-10-2020

Accepted: 16-11-2020

OnlineFirst: 15-01-2021

Publication date: 01-04-2021

Article revision time: 28 days | Average time revision issue 67: 36 days

Article acceptance time: 61 days | Average time of acceptance issue 67: 67 days

Preprint editing time: 152 days | Average editing time preprint issue 67: 159 days

Article editing time: 197 days | Average editing time issue 67: 204 days

Metrics

Metrics of this article

Views: 23362

Abstract readings: 21670

PDF downloads: 1692

Full metrics of Comunicar 67

Views: 254610

Abstract readings: 221526

PDF downloads: 33084

Cited by

Cites in Web of Science

Feijoo Fernandez, Beatriz; Fernandez Gomez, Erika; . Influential children on YouTube and Instagram: content and presence of brands during confinement CUADERNOS INFO, 2021.

https://doi.org/#EANF#

Feijoo, Beatriz; Sadaba, Charo; . The Relationship of Chilean Minors with Brands and Influencers on Social Networks JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING, 2021.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052822

Feijoo, B and Sadaba, C. When Ads Become Invisible: Minors' Advertising Literacy While Using Mobile Phones MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v10i1.4720

Cites in Scopus

Feijoo, B., Sádaba, C. . The relationship of chilean minors with brands and influencers on social networks), Sustainability (Switzerland), .

https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052822

Fernández, B.F., Gómez, E.F. . Influential children on YouTube and Instagram: Content and presence of brands during confinement | [Crianças influentes no YouTube e Instagram: Conteúdo e presença da marca durante o confinamento]), Cuadernos.info, .

https://doi.org/10.7764/CDI.49.27309

Cites in Google Scholar

Feijoo, B., & Sádaba, C. (2021). The Relationship of Chilean Minors with Brands and Influencers on Social Networks. Sustainability, 13(5), 2822.

https://www.mdpi.com/1022530

Feijoo, B., & Sádaba, C. (2021). The Relationship of Chilean Minors with Brands and Influencers on Social Networks. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2822.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b95a/061e7546a328e0f77ff48d8f346da752f431.pdf

Feijoo, B., & Fernández-Gómez, E. (2021). Niños y niñas influyentes en YouTube e Instagram: contenidos y presencia de marcas durante el confinamiento. Cuadernos. info, (49), 300-328.

http://revistaaisthesis.uc.cl/index.php/cdi/article/view/27309

Fernández, B. F., & Gómez, E. F. (2021). Niños y niñas influyentes en YouTube e Instagram: contenidos y presencia de marcas durante el confinamiento. Cuadernos. Info, (49), 302-330.

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/cinfo/n49/0719-367X-cinfo-49-300.pdf

Feijoo Fernández, B., & Fernández Gómez, E. (2021). Niños y niñas influyentes en YouTube e Instagram: contenidos y presencia de marcas durante el confinamiento. Cuadernos. info, (49), 300-328.

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0719-367X2021000200300&script=sci_arttext

Feijoo, B., & Sádaba, C. (2022). When Ads Become Invisible: Minors’ Advertising Literacy While Using Mobile Phones.

https://reunir.unir.net/handle/123456789/12349

Download

Alternative metrics

How to cite

Feijoo, B., Bugueño, S., Sádaba, C., & García-González, A. (2021). Parents' and children's perception on social media advertising. [La percepción de padres e hijos sobre la publicidad en redes sociales]. Comunicar, 67, 99-109. https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-08

Share

           

Post Office Box 527

21080 Huelva (Spain)

Administration

Editorial office

Creative Commons

This website uses cookies to obtain statistical data on the navigation of its users. If you continue to browse we consider that you accept its use. +info X