Palabras clave

Teoría conspirativa, método de rectificación, COVID-19, audiencias, relaciones China-Estados Unidos, influencia mediática

Resumen

Entre las crecientes discusiones sobre los estilos argumentativos de las teorías de conspiración y los procesos cognitivos relacionados de su público, los estudios hasta ahora son limitados en lo que respecta al desarrollo de métodos y estrategias que podrían desacreditar eficazmente las teorías de conspiración y reducir las influencias dañinas de la exposición a los medios de comunicación conspirativos. El presente estudio evalúa de manera crítica la efectividad de cinco enfoques para reducir la creencia en conspiraciones, a través de experimentos (N=607) realizados en Amazon Mechanical Turk. Nuestros resultados demuestran que los métodos basados en el contenido al enfrentar las teorías de la conspiración pueden mitigar parcialmente la creencia conspiratoria. Específicamente, las correcciones centradas en la ciencia y los hechos fueron capaces de mitigar eficazmente las creencias en la conspiración, mientras que las estrategias de alfabetización mediática e inoculación no produjeron cambios significativos. Más importante aún, nuestros hallazgos ilustran que ambos métodos centrados en el público, que implican decodificar el mito de la teoría de la conspiración y reimaginar las relaciones intergrupales, fueron efectivos para reducir la aceptación cognitiva de la teoría de la conspiración. Basado en estos conocimientos, este estudio contribuye a un examen sistemático de distintos medios epistemológicos para influir (o no) en las creencias conspirativas, una tarea urgente frente a la evidente amenaza infodémica, tanto durante como después de la pandemia de COVID-19.

Ver infografía

Referencias

Abalakina-Paap, M., Stephan, W.G., Craig, T., & Gregory, W.L. (1999). Beliefs in conspiracies. Political Psychology, 20(3), 637-647. https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00160

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Aistrope, T., & Bleiker, R. (2018). Conspiracy and foreign policy. Security Dialogue, 49(3), 165-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010617748305

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Aufderheide, P. (1993). Media Literacy. A Report of the National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy. [Conference] Aspen Institute, Washington, DC, United States. https://bit.ly/3y34w63

Link Google Scholar

Baden, C., & Sharon, T. (2020). Blinded by the lies? Toward an integrated definition of conspiracy theories. Communication Theory, 31(1), 82-106. https://doi.org/10.1093/ct/qtaa023

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Banas, J.A., & Miller, G. (2013). Inducing resistance to conspiracy theory propaganda: Testing inoculation and metainoculation strategies. Human Communication Research, 39(2), 184-207. https://doi.org/10.1111/hcre.12000

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Banas, J.A., & Rains, S.A. (2010). A meta-analysis of research on inoculation theory. Communication Monographs, 77(3), 281-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751003758193

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2010). The Power of Unreason: Conspiracy theories, extremism and counter-terrorism. Demos.

Link Google Scholar

Bjerg, O., & Presskorn-Thygesen, T. (2017). Conspiracy theory: Truth claim or language game? Theory, Culture & Society, 34(1), 137-159. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276416657880

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Buckland, M. (2017). Information and society. The MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/10922.001.0001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Chan, M.P.S., Jones, C.R., Hall-Jamieson, K., & Albarracín, D. (2017). Debunking: A meta-analysis of the psychological efficacy of messages countering misinformation. Psychological science, 28(11), 1531-1546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617714579

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Cook, J., & Lewandowsky, S. (2011). The debunking handbook. University of Queensland. https://bit.ly/3ezLFI4

Link Google Scholar

Craft, S., Ashley, S., & Maksl, A. (2017). News media literacy and conspiracy theory endorsement. Communication and the Public, 2(4), 388-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/2057047317725539

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Drochon, H. (2018). Who believes in conspiracy theories in Great Britain and Europe? In J.E. Uscinski (Ed.), Conspiracy theories and the people who believe them (pp. 337-346). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190844073.003.0022

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Einstein, K.L., & Glick, D.M. (2015). Do I think BLS data are BS? The consequences of conspiracy theories. Political Behavior, 37(3), 679-701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-014-9287-z

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Fenster, M. (1999). Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and power in American culture. University of Minnesota Press. https://bit.ly/33yuNv4

Link Google Scholar

Golob, T., Makarovi, M., & Rek, M. (2021). Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation. [Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación]. Comunicar, 66, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hofstadter, R. (1965). The paranoid style in American politics and other essays. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. https://bit.ly/3eBC7fJ

Link Google Scholar

Hollander, B.A. (2018). Partisanship, individual differences, and news media exposure as predictors of conspiracy beliefs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(3), 691-713. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699017728919

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Husting, G., & Orr, M. (2007). Dangerous machinery: ‘Conspiracy theorist’ as a transpersonal strategy of exclusion. Symbolic Interaction, 30(2), 127-150. https://doi.org/10.1525/si.2007.30.2.127

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jeong, S.H., Cho, H., & Hwang, Y. (2012). Media literacy interventions: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Communication, 62(3), 454-472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01643.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jolley, D., & Douglas, K.M. (2014). The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e89177. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089177

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jones, L. (2008). A geopolitical mapping of the post-9/11 world: Exploring conspiratorial knowledge through Fahrenheit 9/11 and The Manchurian Candidate. Journal of Media Geography, 111, 44-50. https://bit.ly/3f4MSWW

Link Google Scholar

Jones-Jang, S.M., Mortensen, T., & Liu, J. (2021). Does media literacy help identification of fake news? Information literacy helps, but other literacies don’t. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 371-388. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219869406

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jutila, M. (2006). Desecuritizing minority rights: Against determinism. Security Dialogue, 37(2), 167-185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010606066169

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Karstedt, S., & Farrall, S. (2006). The moral economy of everyday crime: Markets, consumers and citizens. British Journal of Criminology, 46(6), 1011-1036. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azl082

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Kofta, M., & Sedek, G. (2005). Conspiracy stereotypes of Jews during systemic transformation in Poland. International Journal of Sociology, 35(1), 40-64. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207659.2005.11043142

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Krekó, P. (2020). Countering conspiracy theories and misinformation. In M. Butter & P. Knight, P. (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Conspiracy Theories (pp.242-256). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429452734-2_8

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

LaGarde, J., & Hudgins, D. (2018). Fact vs. Fiction: Teaching critical thinking skills in the age of fake news. International Society for Technology in Education.

Link Google Scholar

Lee, B. (2020). Radicalization and Conspiracy Theories. In M. Butter, & P. Knight (Eds.) Routledge Handbook of Conspiracy Theories. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429452734-3_7

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

McGuire, W.J., & Papageorgis, D. (1962). Effectiveness of forewarning in developing resistance to persuasion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 26, 24-34. https://doi.org/10.1086/267068

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mitchell, S.S.D. (2019). Population control, deadly vaccines, and mutant mosquitoes: The construction and circulation of Zika virus conspiracy theories online. Canadian Journal of Communication, 44(2), 211-237. https://doi.org/10.22230/cjc.2019v44n2a3329

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mora-Rodríguez, A., & Melero-López, I. (2021). News consumption and risk perception of Covid-19 in Spain. [Seguimiento informativo y percepción del riesgo ante la Covid-19 en España]. Comunicar, 66, 71-81. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-06

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mutsvairo, B., & Bebawi, S. (2019). Journalism educators, regulatory realities, and pedagogical predicaments of the “fake news” era: A comparative perspective on the middle east and Africa. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 74(2), 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077695819833552

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Oliver, J.E., & Wood, T.J. (2014). Conspiracy theories and the paranoid style(s) of mass opinion. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), 952-966. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12084

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Potter, W.J. (2010). The state of media literacy. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(4), 675-696. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2011.521462

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Roe, P. (2004). Securitization and minority rights: Conditions of de-securitization. Security Dialogue, 35(3), 279-294. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010604047527

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Roozenbeek, J., & van-der-Linden, S. (2019). The fake news game: Actively inoculating against the risk of misinformation. Journal of Risk Research, 22(5), 570-580. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2018.1443491

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Samuel-Azran, T., & Hayat, T. (2019). Online news recommendations credibility: The tie is mightier than the source. [La credibilidad de las noticias digitales: El vínculo es más impactante que la fuente]. Comunicar, 60, 71-80. https://doi.org/10.3916/C60-2019-07

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Sidak, Z. (1967). Rectangular confidence regions for the means of multivariate normal distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 62(318), 626-633. https://doi.org/10.2307/2283989

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Simmons, W.P., & Parsons, S. (2005). Beliefs in conspiracy theories among African Americans: A comparison of elites and masses. Social Science Quarterly, 86(3), 582-598. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00319.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Swami, V. (2012). Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00280

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Turner, R.N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2007). Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 369–388. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.3.369

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Uscinski, J.E., & Parent, J.M. (2014). American Conspiracy Theories. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199351800.001.0001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

van-Prooijen, J.W., Douglas, K.M., & De-Inocencio, C. (2018). Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural. European Journal of Social Psychology, 48(3), 320-335. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2331

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Walter, N., & Tukachinsky, R. (2020). A meta-analytic examination of the continued influence of misinformation in the face of correction: How powerful is it, why does it happen, and how to stop it? Communication Research, 47(2),155-177. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650219854600

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Warner, B.R., & Neville-Shepard, R. (2014). Echoes of a conspiracy: Birthers, truthers, and the cultivation of extremism. Communication Quarterly, 62(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463373.2013.822407

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Winiewski, M., Soral, W., & Bilewicz, M. (2015). Conspiracy theories on the map of stereotype content: Survey and historical evidence. In M. Bilewicz, A. Cichocka, & W. Soral (Eds.), The Psychology of Conspiracy (pp. 23-41). Routledge.

Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Ficha técnica

Recibido: 16-02-2021

Revisado: 19-03-2021

Aceptado: 27-04-2021

OnlineFirst: 15-06-2021

Fecha publicación: 01-10-2021

Tiempo de revisión del artículo : 31 días | Media tiempo revisión número 69: 30 días

Tiempo de aceptación del artículo: 69 días | Media tiempo aceptación número 69: 68 días

Tiempo de edición del preprint: 181 días | Media tiempo edición número preprint 69: 180 días

Tiempo de edición del artículo: 226 días | Media tiempo edición número 69: 225 días

Métricas

Métricas de este artículo

Vistas: 2329

Lectura del abstract: 1630

Descargas del PDF: 699

Métricas completas de Comunicar 69

Vistas: 18269

Lectura del abstract: 14482

Descargas del PDF: 3787

Citado por

Citas en Web of Science

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Citas en Scopus

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Citas en Google Scholar

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Descarga

Métricas alternativas

Cómo citar

Guan, T., Liu, T., & Yuan, R. (2021). Facing disinformation: Five methods to counter conspiracy theories amid the Covid-19 pandemic. [Combatiendo la desinformación: Cinco métodos para contrarrestar las teorías de conspiración en la pandemia de Covid-19]. Comunicar, 69, 71-83. https://doi.org/10.3916/C69-2021-06

Compartir

           

Apartado de Correos 527

21080 Huelva (España)

Administración

Redacción

Creative Commons

Esta web utiliza cookies para obtener datos estadísticos de la navegación de sus usuarios. Si continúas navegando consideramos que aceptas su uso. +info X