Palabras clave

Discurso de odio, ciberodio, motivos, normas sociales, normas cautelares, presión de los pares

Resumen

El discurso de odio se ha convertido en un fenómeno generalizado. Sin embargo, todavía no está claro por qué los adolescentes se involucran en el discurso de odio y qué factores están asociados con las motivaciones para perpetrarlo. Con esta finalidad, desarrollamos una medida multidimensional, la «Escala de Motivaciones para Perpetrar Discurso de Odio» (MHATE), y evaluamos sus propiedades psicométricas. Asimismo, investigamos las asociaciones entre las normas sociales y las motivaciones para participar en el discurso de odio. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 346 adolescentes suizos (54,6% chicos; Medad=14; DT=0,96) que informaron haber perpetrado discurso de odio. Los análisis revelaron buenas propiedades psicométricas de MHATE, incluyendo adecuada consistencia interna. La subescala con mayor frecuencia fue venganza, seguida de las de ideología, conformidad con el grupo, mejora del estatus, regocijo y poder. Las normas descriptivas y la presión de iguales estuvieron relacionadas con varias motivaciones para perpetrar discurso de odio. Las normas prescriptivas, sin embargo, solo se asociaron con el poder. En conclusión, los hallazgos indican que el discurso de odio cumple varias funciones. Conocer las motivaciones específicas para el discurso de odio ayuda a derivar estrategias de intervención individualmente adaptadas (ej., manejo de la ira, promover un clima escolar inclusivo). Además, sugerimos que los profesionales que trabajan en la prevención del discurso de odio presten especial atención a las normas sociales que rodean a los adolescentes.

Ver infografía

Referencias

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Addison-Wesley. https://bit.ly/3s5s35M

Link Google Scholar

Ballaschk, C., Wachs, S., Krause, N., Schulze-Reichelt, F., Kansok-Dusche, J., Bilz, L. & Schubarth, W. (2021). Dann machen halt alle mit.“ Eine qualitative Studie zu Beweggründen und Motiven für Hatespeech unter Schüler*innen. [“Then everyone just goes along with it." A qualitative study on reasons and motives of hate speech among students]. Diskurs Kindheits- und Jugendforschung / Discourse. Journal of Childhood and Adolescence Research, 16(4-2021), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3224/diskurs.v16i4.01

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bastiaensens, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2016). From normative influence to social pressure: How relevant others affect whether bystanders join in cyberbullying. Social Development, 25(1), 193-211. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12134

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Chen, F.F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464-504. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701301834

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Cialdini, R.B., & Trost, M.R. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity and compliance. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 151–192). McGraw-Hill.

Link Google Scholar

Cook, C.R., Williams, K.R., Guerra, N.G., Kim, T.E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020149

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Erjavec, K., & Kova?i?, M.P. (2012). “You don't understand, this is a new war!” Analysis of hate speech in news web sites' comments. Mass Communication and Society, 15(6), 899-920. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2011.619679

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Fluck, J. (2017). Why do students bully? An analysis of motives behind violence in schools. Youth & Society, 49(5), 567-587. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X14547876

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2012). Motives for bullying others in cyberspace: A study on bullies and bully-victims in Austria. In Q. Li, D. Cross, & P.K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives (pp. 263–284). Wiley Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119954484.ch13

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hartley, J.E.K., Levin, K., & Currie, C. (2016). A new version of the HBSC Family Affluence Scale-FAS III: Scottish qualitative findings from the international FAS development study. Child Indicators Research, 9(1), 233-245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-015-9325-3

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayduk, L.A., & Littvay, L. (2012). Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-159

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Krause, N., Ballaschk, C., Schulze-Reichelt, F., Kansok-Dusche, J., Wachs, S., Schubarth, W., & Bilz, L. (2021). Ich lass mich da nicht klein machen!“ Eine qualitative Studie zur Bewältigung von Hatespeech durch Schüler/innen. [“I don’t let them get me down!”—A qualitative study on students’ coping with hate speech]. Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung, 11(1), 169-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s35834-021-00291-w

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Lee, S.S.T., & Wong, D.S.W. (2009). School, parents, and peer factors in relation to Hong Kong students' bullying. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 15(3), 217-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2009.9748030

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Lehman, B. (2020). Hate at school: Victimization and disorder associated with school avoidance. Sociological Spectrum, 40(3), 172-190. https://doi.org/10.1080/02732173.2020.1734890

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

McClelland, D.C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. Irvington Publishers.

Link Google Scholar

Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide. Muthén & Muthén. https://bit.ly/3IJorwi

Link Google Scholar

Möller, K., Grote, J., Nolde, K., & Schuhmacher, N. (2016). Die kann ich nicht ab!: Ablehnung, Diskriminierung und Gewalt bei Jugendlichen in der (Post-) Migrationsgesellschaft. Analysen zu gesellschaftlicher Integration und Desintegration. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-02302-7

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Olthof, T., Goossens, F.A., Vermande, M.M., Aleva, E.A., & van-der-Meulen, M. (2011). Bullying as strategic behavior: Relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group. Journal of School Psychology, 49(3), 339-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.03.003

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. Viking.

Link Google Scholar

Reichelmann, A., Hawdon, J., Costello, M., Ryan, J., Blaya, C., Llorent, V., Oksanen, A., Rasanen, P.,& Zych, I. (2020). Hate knows no boundaries: Online hate in six nations. Deviant Behavior, 42(9)1100-1111. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2020.1722337

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Runions, K.C., Salmivalli, C., Shaw, T., Burns, S., & Cross, D. (2018). Beyond the reactive?proactive dichotomy: Rage, revenge, reward, and recreational aggression predict early high school bully and bully/victim status. Aggressive Behavior, 44(5), 501-511. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21770

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Salmivalli, C., & Peets, K. (2009). Bullies, victims, and bully-victim relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. In K.H. Rubin, W.M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 322–340). The Guilford Press.

Link Google Scholar

Santor, D.A., Messervey, D., & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 163-182. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005152515264

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Sokolowski, K., & Heckhausen, H. (2010). Soziale Bindung: Anschlussmotivation und Intimitätsmotivation. In J. Heckhausen, & H. Heckhausen (Eds), Motivation und Handeln [Motivation and Action] (pp. 193-210). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12693-2_7

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (2004). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In J.T. Jost, & J. Sidanius (Eds.), Political psychology: Key readings (pp. 276-293). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203505984-16

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tanrikulu, I., & Erdur-Baker, O. (2021). Motives behind cyberbullying perpetration: A test of uses and gratifications theory. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(13-14), 6699-6724. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518819882

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-de-Bongardt, D., Reitz, E., Sandfort, T., & Dekovi?, M. (2015). A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(3), 203-234. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868314544223

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-de-Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(4), 486-492. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.686740

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Váradi, L., Barna, I., & Németh, R. (2021). Whose norms, whose prejudice? The dynamics of perceived group norms and prejudice in new secondary school classes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3621. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.524547

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wachs, S., & Wright, M.F. (2021). Associations between online hate victimization and perpetration: The buffering effects of technical and assertive coping. MedienPädagogik, 16, 109-128. https://doi.org/10.21240/mpaed/jb16/2021.01.14.X

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wachs, S., Mazzone, A., Milosevic, T., Wright, M.F., Blaya, C., Gámez-Guadix, M., & O'Higgins Norman, J. (2021). Online correlates of cybeMHATE involvement among young people from ten European countries: An application of the routine activity and problem behaviour theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 123, 106872. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106872

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wachs, S., Schubarth, W., & Bilz, L. (2020). Hate speech als schulproblem? Erziehungswissenschaftliche perspektiven auf ein aktuelles phänomen. In I. van-Ackeren, H. Bremer, F. Kessl, H.C. Koller, N. Pfaff, C. Rotter, D. Klein, & U. Salaschek (Eds.), Bewegungen – Beiträge aus dem 26. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (pp. 223-236). Verlag Barbara Budrich. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv10h9fjc.19

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wachs, S., Wettstein, A., Bilz, L., Krause, N., Ballaschk, C., Kansok-Dusche, J., & Wright, M.F. (in press). Playing by the Rules? An Investigation of the Relationship Between Social Norms and Adolescents’ Hate Speech Perpetration in Schools. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211056032

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wettstein, A. (2008). Beobachtungssystem zur Analyse aggressiven Verhaltens in schulischen Settings (BASYS). [Observation system for the analysis of aggressive behavior in school settings]. Huber.

Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Ficha técnica

Recibido: 22-09-2021

Revisado: 09-11-2021

Aceptado: 03-12-2021

OnlineFirst: 01-02-2022

Fecha publicación: 01-04-2022

Tiempo de revisión del artículo : 48 (en días) | Media de tiempo de revisión de los manuscritos del número 71: 45 (en días)

Tiempo de aceptación del artículo: 72 (en días) | Media tiempo aceptación de los manuscritos del número 71: 70 (en días)

Tiempo de edición OnlineFirst: 146 (en días) | Media tiempo edición de los OnlineFirst del número 71: 144 (en días)

Tiempo de publicacicón final del artículo: 191 (en días) | Media tiempo de publicación final de los articulos del número 71: 189 (en días)

Métricas

Métricas de este artículo

Vistas: 14073

Lectura del abstract: 12508

Descargas del PDF: 1565

Métricas completas de Comunicar 71

Vistas: 143963

Lectura del abstract: 124110

Descargas del PDF: 19853

Citado por

Citas en Web of Science

Castellvi, J; Sabater, MM; (...); Santisteban, A. Future teachers confronting extremism and hate speech HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS, 2022.

https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01222-4

Citas en Scopus

Castellví, J., Massip Sabater, M., González-Valencia, G.A., Santisteban, A.. Future teachers confronting extremism and hate speech), Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, .

https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01222-4

Citas en Google Scholar

Castellví, J., Massip Sabater, M., González-Valencia, G. A., & Santisteban, A. (2022). Future teachers confronting extremism and hate speech. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 9(1), 1-9.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-022-01222-4

Das Programm „HateLess “

...

Associations Between Classroom Climate, Empathy, Self-Efficacy, and Countering Hate Speech Among Adolescents: A Multilevel Mediation Analysis

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/08862605221120905

Descarga

Métricas alternativas

Cómo citar

Wachs, S., WeJEtstein, A., Bilz, L., & Gámez-Guadix, M. (2022). Adolescents’ motivations to perpetrate hate speech and links with social norms. [Motivos del discurso de odio en la adolescencia y su relación con las normas sociales]. Comunicar, 71, 9-20. https://doi.org/10.3916/C71-2022-01

Compartir

           

Apartado de Correos 527

21080 Huelva (España)

Administración

Redacción

Creative Commons

Esta web utiliza cookies para obtener datos estadísticos de la navegación de sus usuarios. Si continúas navegando consideramos que aceptas su uso. +info X