Palavras chave

Alfabetização midiática, reflexividade, pensamento crítico, fake news, desinformação, verificação

Resumo

O avanço digital contribui para que as fake news e a desinformação aumentem em número e ritmo. O objetivo central deste trabalho é considerar o poder dos sujeitos para responder ativamente à desinformação e às notícias falsas. Os autores se baseiam no quadro teórico segundo a reflexividade de Archer e seus modos. Argumenta que um modo específico de reflexividade, a meta-reflexividade, permite distanciar-se criticamente das mensagens e dos meios de comunicação. Consiste em que a ferramenta de medição de reflexividade (RMT) permite uma avaliação aproximada da própria reflexividade em relação às pontuações quantitativas. A pesquisa na Eslovênia sobre uma amostra representativa nacional aplica uma análise de trajetória para determinar a relação entre as características demográficas, a exposição dos meios de comunicação, a reflexividade e a constatação dos fatos. Os resultados mostram que a idade e a educação afetam as preferências dos meios de comunicação, em termos de frequência e exposição a um tipo particular. Jovens, mulheres e pessoas com o ensino superior são mais meta-reflexivos, contribuindo com uma resposta ativa à desinformação. Conclui-se que a meta-reflexividade é necessária, mas não o suficiente para produzir uma resposta ativa dos sujeitos das mensagens dos meios de comunicação. São necessários serviços profissionais de comprovação dos fatos e de educação sobre os meios de comunicação.

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Technical information

Recebido: 30-03-2020

Revisado: 21-04-2020

Aceite: 03-07-2020

OnlineFirst: 15-11-2020

Data de publicação: 01-01-2021

Tempo de revisão do artigo: 22 dias | Tempo médio de revisão do número 66: 16 dias

Tempo de aceitação do artigo: 95 dias | Tempo médio de aceitação do número 66: 51 dias

Tempo de edição da pré-impressão: 232 dias | Tempo médio de edição pré-impressão do número 66: 193 dias

Tempo de processamento do artigo: 277 dias | Tempo médio de processamento do número 66: 238 dias

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Golob, T., Makarovič, M., & Rek, M. (2021). Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation. [Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación]. Comunicar, 66, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09

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