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Comunicar Journal 76: Neurotechnology in the classroom: Current research and future potential (Vol. 31 - 2023)

Application of neurotechnology in students with ADHD: An umbrella review


Currently, classrooms are experiencing an increase in the number of schoolchildren with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Numerous studies propose, as an alternative to medication, the implementation of different neurotechnology in the classroom to improve the symptomatology and enhance the cognitive abilities of children with this diagnosis. This umbrella review aims to compile the scientific evidence that exists on the application of these techniques, as well as their implementation, in schools. A systematic review was carried out, following accepted recommendations (PRISMA), which included systematic reviews in English or Spanish, published in scientific journals, which deal with ADHD, apply some neurotechnology used in this population such as neurofeedback, transcranial stimulation (tDCS) or hyper scanning, and which refer to education or school. Fourteen systematic reviews were retained, which show that neurofeedback is the most widely used neurotechnology, although its actual implementation in school has been scarcely treated or only aimed to evaluate its efficacy. In second place, tDCS appears with a more clinical approach, while hyper scanning does not appear. Despite the promising experimental results, ecological studies proposing the effective implementation of these techniques in educational centers are necessary; on the other hand, the commitment to neuroeducation would entail the emergence of new professional figures.