Volume index - Journal index - Article index - Map ---- Back


Comunicar Journal 67: Cyber convivencia as a social scenario: Ethics and emotions (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Cyberostracism: Emotional and behavioral consequences in social media interactions

https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-01

Simona Galbava

Hana Machackova

Lenka Dedkova

Abstract

This study focuses on the effect of cyberostracism on social networking sites. Based on the temporal need-threat model of ostracism, we examined a) reflexive reactions, specifically worsened mood and threats to the four fundamental needs (i.e., belongingness, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control), and b) reflective reactions, in the form of prosocial, antisocial, and avoidance behavior. We also focused on the role of social anxiety. Using the experimental tool Ostracism Online, we conducted an online experiment to manipulate ostracism, measure self-reported reflexive reactions, and measure reflective reactions in a newly developed cooperative financial game. The participants were 196 young Czech adults (age 18-30; 62% women). T-tests showed worsened mood and higher threat connected to all four of the fundamental needs in the reflexive stage in ostracized participants. Regression models showed that social anxiety had a small effect on reflexive reactions, but it did not moderate the effect of ostracism. The type of threatened need and social anxiety did not predict a reflective reaction. The only significant predictor of antisocial response was experienced ostracism. Even a mild form of ostracism such as the lack of reactions by strangers to a shared post can lead to negative emotional and behavioral consequences.

Keywords

Cyberostracism, social exclusion, Ostracism Online, social networking sites, social anxiety, emotions

PDF file in Spanish

PDF file in English

References

Ayduk, Ö., Gyurak, A., & Luerssen, A. (2008). Individual differences in the rejection – aggression link in the hot sauce paradigm: The case of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 775-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2007.07.004

Burrow, A.L., & Rainone, N. (2017). How many likes did I get? Purpose moderates links between positive social media feedback and self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 232-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.005

Chester, D.S., & DeWall, C.N. (2016). Sound the alarm: The effect of narcissism on retaliatory aggression is moderated by dACC reactivity to rejection. Journal of Personality, 84(3), 361-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12164

Donate, A.P.G., Marques, L.M., Lapenta, O.M., Asthana, M.K., Amodio, D., & Boggio, P.S. (2017). Ostracism via virtual chat room—Effects on basic needs, anger and pain. PLoS ONE, 12(9), e0184215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184215

Eisenberger, N.I., Lieberman, M.D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302(5643), 290-292. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089134

Hartgerink, C.H.J., van Beest I., Wicherts J.M., & Williams K.D. (2015). The ordinal effects of ostracism: A meta-analysis of 120 Cyberball studies. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0127002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127002

Hayes, R.A., Carr, C.T., & Wohn, D.Y. (2016). One click, many meanings: Interpreting paralinguistic digital affordances in social media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 60(1), 171-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2015.1127248

Hayes, R.A., Wesselmann, E.D., & Carr, C.T. (2018). When nobody “Likes” you: Perceived ostracism through paralinguistic digital affordances within social media. Social Media + Society, 4(3), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305118800309

Kowalski, R.M., Giumetti, G.W., Schroeder, A.N., & Lattanner, M.R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073-1137. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035618

Kupper, N., & Denollet, J. (2012). Social anxiety in the general population: Introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(1-2), 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.014

McCord, B., Rodebaugh, T.L., & Levinson, C.A. (2014). Facebook: Social uses and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.020

Miller, R.S. (2009). Social anxiousness, shyness, and embarrassability. In M.R. Leary, & R.H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 176-191). The Guilford Press. https://bit.ly/3myP2k4

Peduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford, T.R., & Feinstein, A.R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(12), 1373-1379. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00236-3

Reich, S., Schneider, F.M., & Heling, L. (2018). Zero Likes - Symbolic interactions and need satisfaction online. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 97-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.10.043

Ren, D., Wesselmann, E.D., & Williams, K.D. (2018). Hurt people hurt people: Ostracism and aggression. Current Opinion in Psychology, 19, 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.026

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400876136

Ryan, T., Allen, K.A., Gray, D.L., & McInerney, D.M. (2017). How social are social media? A review of online social behaviour and connectedness. Journal of Relationships Research, 8, e8. https://doi.org/10.1017/jrr.2017.13

Schneider, F.M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M.J., Hopp, F.R., Reich, S., & Vorderer, P. (2017). Social media ostracism: The effects of being excluded online. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.052

Scissors, L., Burke, M., & Wengrovitz, S. (2016). What's in a Like? Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook. In CSCW '16: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 1501-1510). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2818048.2820066

Tobin, S.J., McDermott, S., & French, L. (2018). The role of group size in reactions to ostracism and inclusion. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(7), 1014-1033. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430217702723

Tobin, S.J., Vanman, E.J., Verreynne, M., & Saeri, A.K. (2015). Threats to belonging on Facebook: Lurking and ostracism. Social Influence, 10(1), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/15534510.2014.893924

Twenge, J.M. (2005). When does social rejection lead to aggression? The influences of situations, narcissism, emotion, and replenishing connections. In K.D. Williams, J.P. Forgas, & W. von-Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 202-212). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203942888

Twenge, J.M., & Campbell, W.K. (2003). Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve? Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(2), 261-272. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202239051

Valkenburg, P.M., & Peter, J. (2007). Preadolescents' and adolescents' online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 267-277. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.267

van-de-Mortel, T.F. (2008). Faking it: Social desirability response bias in self-report research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(4), 40-48. https://bit.ly/2JfgZyP

Wesselmann, E.D., Ren, D., & Williams, K.D. (2015). Motivations for responses to ostracism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 40. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00040

Williams, K.D. (2009). Ostracism: A temporal need-threat model. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 275-314). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)00406-1

Williams, K.D., & Wesselmann, E.D. (2011). The link between ostracism and aggression. In J.P. Forgas, A.W. Kruglanski, & K.D. Williams (Eds.), The psychology of social conflict and aggression (pp. 37-51). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203803813

Williams, K.D., Cheung, C.K.T., & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 748-762. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.748

Wohn, D.Y., Carr, C.T., Hayes, R.A. (2016). How affective is a “Like”? The effect of paralinguistic digital affordances on perceived social support. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(9), 562-566. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2016.0162

Wolf, W., Levordashka, A., Ruff, J.R., Kraaijeveld, S., Lueckmann, J.M., & Williams, K.D. (2015). Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm. Behavioral Research Methods, 47(2), 361-373. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0475-x

Zadro, L., Boland, C., & Richardson, R. (2006). How long does it last? The persistence of the effects of ostracism in the socially anxious. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 692-697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2005.10.007