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Comunicar Journal 70: New challenges for teachers in the context of digital learning (Vol. 30 - 2022)

Disinformation and multiliteracy: A systematic review of the literature


Jesús Valverde-Berrocoso

Alberto González-Fernández

Jesús Acevedo-Borrega


Disinformation is a serious problem for democratic systems in open societies. It is a global phenomenon that must be studied from different approaches and the educational dimension is one of the most relevant. It is necessary to know what educational models have been developed to empower citizens against disinformation. A systematic review of the literature (2011-2020), following the PRISMA protocol, was carried out by analyzing articles (n=76) extracted from three databases (Wos, Scopus and ERIC). Reference management and text mining software was used to data analyse. Eight research questions were answered on the conceptual framework, bibliometrics characteristics and pedagogical dimension. From the results of the content analysis emerges a vision of the role of multiliteracies in educational research and the problem of disinformation: media and information literacies are the most relevant and news and data literacies are incorporated. The need to adopt interdisciplinary approaches is confirmed. From the results of the educational dimension, three pedagogical approaches are identified: strategies for competencies development; focused on content and education for citizenship. Workshops and lesson plans are the most common teaching practices. The development of critical thinking, experiences in the co-construction of knowledge, and the values of civic education are fundamental against disinformation.


Disinformation, fake news, media literacy, informational literacy, digital literacy, educational model

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