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Revista Comunicar 61: Competencia digital docente. Perspectivas y prospectivas para una nueva escuela (Vol. 27 - 2019)

Comprendiendo los aspectos culturales y sociales de las competencias digitales docentes

Understanding social and cultural aspects of teachers’ digital competencies

https://doi.org/10.3916/C61-2019-01

Bård-Ketil Engen

Abstract

Muchos gobiernos europeos, incluido el de Noruega, tienen políticas educativas ambiciosas en materia de digitalización. Muchas empresas y responsables políticos prestan gran atención al uso de las tecnologías digitales en la educación para satisfacer la futura demanda de una mano de obra competente y cualificada. Entre los investigadores y los legisladores, existe un consenso general al considerar a los docentes profesionales como una figura clave para la aplicación con éxito de las TIC en la escuela, en lo referente a su implementación y su uso, y se han depositado muchas expectativas en ellos. Se supone que el docente profesional debe, hasta cierto punto, decidir de manera autónoma cómo se han de utilizar estas tecnologías digitales en el aula. Este artículo analiza lo que puede significar el concepto de «docente profesional digitalmente competente» en el contexto de la escuela. También argumenta sobre la necesidad de una mejor interpretación de la competencia digital profesional, que tenga en cuenta diversos aspectos sociales y culturales en relación con la tecnología, las escuelas y la profesión docente. Al analizar las condiciones sociales y culturales para implementar la tecnología en un contexto de enseñanza profesional, nos basaremos en el enfoque constructivista de la tecnología, en concreto, la «domesticación de la tecnología».

Many European governments, including Norway, have ambitious educational policies regarding digitalisation. Many businesses and policymakers pay great attention to the use of digital technologies in education in order to meet the future demands for a competent and qualified workforce. Among researchers and policymakers, there is a general consensus that the professional teacher is a key figure for the successful implementation of digital technologies in schools. Many expectations have been placed upon professional teachers regarding the implementation and use of digital technologies. The professional teacher is, to a certain degree, supposed to independently decide how digital technologies should be used in the classroom. This paper discusses what the concept of a ‘professional digitally competent teacher’ may mean in the context of schools. It also argues the need for a greater understanding of professional digital competence, one which takes into consideration various social and cultural aspects with regard to technology, schools and the teaching profession. In unpacking the social and cultural conditions for implementing technology in a professional teaching context, I will draw on concepts from the constructivist understanding of technology, namely, the ‘domestication of technology’.

Keywords

Valores culturales, competencia digital, digitalización, domesticación tecnológica, economía ética, condiciones sociales, competencia profesional docente, adaptación tecnológica

Cultural values, digital competence, digitalisation, domestication of technology, moral economy, social conditions, teacher professional competence, technology adaption

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