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Revista Comunicar 61: Competencia digital docente. Perspectivas y prospectivas para una nueva escuela (Vol. 27 - 2019)

Recursos digitales y metodología didáctica en la formación inicial de docentes de Historia

Digital resources and didactic methodology in the initial training of History teachers

https://doi.org/10.3916/C61-2019-04

Pedro Miralles-Martínez

Cosme-J. Gómez-Carrasco

Víctor-B. Arias-González

Olaia Fontal-Merillas

Abstract

El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los vínculos entre las percepciones del profesorado en formación sobre el uso de los recursos digitales en el aula de Secundaria, y sus concepciones metodológicas y epistemológicas. Las teorías de Shulman siguen orientando en gran medida las investigaciones sobre el conocimiento del profesorado. Sin embargo, el impacto de las nuevas tecnologías ha impulsado nuevos enfoques, como el T-PACK, que incide en la competencia digital docente. Para abordar este objetivo se ha recogido información de un cuestionario implementado en 22 universidades, 13 españolas (344 participantes) y 9 inglesas (162 participantes). Los análisis de datos se realizaron en tres fases: a) exploración de la estructura de las valoraciones sobre la utilidad de los recursos digitales mediante análisis de clases latentes; b) estimación de los modelos factoriales confirmatorios para las variables procesos de evaluación, Historia como materia formativa, y competencias históricas; c) estimación de las diferencias entre clases. Los resultados mostraron cuatro perfiles de respuesta en función de la opinión sobre el uso de los recursos en el aula, y polarizadas en torno a dos ítems: cómics y videojuegos. También se ha podido comprobar importantes diferencias entre clases en cuestiones metodológicas (prácticas tradicionales e innovadoras); y diferencias menos importantes sobre percepciones epistemológicas y de desarrollo de competencias históricas en el aula.

This paper analyzes the links that exist between the perceptions of teachers-in-training regarding the use of digital resources in the Secondary Education classroom and their own methodological and epistemological conceptions. Shulman’s theories continue to largely guide current research on teacher knowledge. However, the impact caused by the new technologies has inspired new approaches like T-PACK, which put the focus on the teachers’ digital competence. In order to address this goal, information has been collected by means of a questionnaire implemented in 22 universities, 13 Spanish (344 participants) and 9 British (162 participants). The analysis of data was conducted along three phases: a) examination of the structure of assessments regarding the usefulness of digital resources by analyzing latent classes; b) estimation of confirmatory factor models for variable evaluation processes, History as a formative subject and historical competencies; c) estimation of interclass differences by using confirmatory factor models. The results showed four types of response regarding the use of digital resources in the classroom that were polarized about two items: comics and video games. Important interclass differences have likewise been found regarding methodological issues (traditional and innovative practices), as well as less important differences concerning epistemological conceptions and views on the development of historical competencies in the classroom.

Keywords

TIC, medios, competencia digital, educación secundaria, formación docente, metodología didáctica, cuestionario, historia

ICT, mass media, digital competence, secondary education, teacher education, didactic methodology, questionnaire, history

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Archivo PDF inglés

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