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Revista Comunicar 66: Escuelas públicas para la transformación en la Sociedad del Conocimiento (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación

Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation

https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09

Tea Golob

Matej Makarovič

Mateja Rek

Abstract

El avance digital contribuye a que las noticias falsas y la desinformación aumenten en número y ritmo. El objetivo central de este trabajo es considerar el poder de las personas para responder activamente a la desinformación y noticias falsas. Para ello, los autores se basan en Archer, específicamente su propuesta teórica relacionada con la reflexividad y sus modos. Argumentamos que un modo específico de reflexividad, la meta-reflexividad, permite distanciarse críticamente de los mensajes de los medios de comunicación. El método consiste en el uso de la Herramienta de Medición de la Reflexividad (HMR) para proporcionar una evaluación aproximada de la propia reflexividad en términos de puntuaciones cuantitativas. La encuesta se ha realizado en Eslovenia sobre una muestra nacional representativa y se ha aplicado un análisis de la trayectoria para determinar la relación entre las características demográficas, la exposición a los medios de comunicación, la reflexividad y la verificación de los hechos. Los resultados muestran que la edad y la educación afectan las preferencias relacionadas con los medios, medidos en base a la frecuencia de exposición a un tipo particular de medio. Los jóvenes, las mujeres y las personas con educación terciaria son más meta-reflexivos, lo cual contribuye a que tengan una respuesta activa a la desinformación. Se concluye que la meta-reflexividad es necesaria pero no suficiente para producir una respuesta activa de los sujetos a los mensajes de los medios de comunicación. Finalmente se menciona la necesidad de tener servicios profesionales de verificación, además de programas de educación mediática.

The rise of digital media contributes to fake news and disinformation being circulated on a larger scale and pace. The central aim of the work is to consider the potentials of individuals to actively respond to disinformation and fake news. In that regard, the authors rely on Archer’s theoretical framework of reflexivity and its modes. It is argued that a specific mode of reflexivity, namely meta-reflexivity, can enable people to take a critical distance towards media messaging. The method involves the Reflexivity Measurement Tool (RMT) to provide an approximate assessment of one’s reflexivity in terms of quantitative scores. The survey has been conducted in Slovenia on a representative national sample and path analysis is applied to identify the relationship between demographic features, media exposure, reflexivity and fact-checking. The results show how age and education affect media preferences, in terms of how frequently an individual is exposed to a particular type of media. Younger people, women and persons with tertiary education are more meta-reflexive, which contributes to their active response to disinformation. It is concluded that meta-reflexivity is essential but not sufficient to produce an active response of individuals to disinformation. Need for professional fact-checking-services and media education is discussed.

Keywords

Alfabetización mediática, reflexividad, pensamiento crítico, noticias falsas, desinformación, verificación

Media literacy, reflexivity, critical thinking, fake news, disinformation, fact-checking

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