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Revista Comunicar 67: La ciberconvivencia como escenario social: Ética y emociones (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Ansiedad y autoestima en los perfiles de cibervictimización de los adolescentes

Anxiety and self-esteem in cyber-victimization profiles of adolescents

https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-04

Andrea Núñez

David Álvarez-García

María-C. Pérez-Fuentes

Abstract

Este trabajo parte de dos objetivos: 1) Identificar perfiles de victimización en la adolescencia, en función del grado de padecimiento de violencia offline u online por parte de sus iguales, así como la prevalencia de cada perfil; 2) Analizar la asociación de los perfiles de victimización obtenidos con la ansiedad social y la autoestima del adolescente. Para ello, se aplicaron cuestionarios de autoinforme sobre victimización tradicional entre iguales, cibervictimización, ansiedad social y autoestima a 3.120 adolescentes de Asturias (España), de 12 a 18 años (M=14.03; DT=1.40). Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, análisis de perfil latente y análisis multivariado de la varianza. Se obtuvo una correlación positiva y moderada entre ser cibervíctima y ser víctima de violencia tradicional; y una tipología de cuatro perfiles: no víctimas (77,8%), principalmente cibervictimas (13,5%), principalmente víctimas de violencia tradicional (4,5%) y víctimas duales (4,3%). Cuanto mayor es el nivel de victimización, mayor la ansiedad social y menor la autoestima, siendo más fuerte esta asociación con la victimización tradicional que con la cibervictimización. Tanto las víctimas tradicionales como las duales presentan una mayor ansiedad social y una menor autoestima que las cibervíctimas, y estas que las no víctimas. Víctimas duales y tradicionales no difieren en ansiedad social y autoestima. Los resultados obtenidos contribuyen a identificar patrones de victimización en la adolescencia, y su relación con la ansiedad social y la autoestima.

This study has two objectives: (1) Identify profiles of victimization in adolescence, depending on the levels of offline or online peer aggression suffered, along with the prevalence of each profile; and (2) Analyse the association of the victimization profiles with adolescents’ social anxiety and self-esteem. The sample was comprised of 3120 adolescents aged 12 to 18 (M=14.03; SD=1.40) from Asturias (Spain), who completed self-report questionnaires about traditional peer victimization and cyber-victimization, as well as social anxiety and self-esteem. We performed descriptive analyses, Latent Profile Analyses, and multivariate analyses of variance. We found a positive, moderate correlation between being a cyber-victim and being a traditional victim, along with four profile types: non-victims (77.8%), mainly cyber-victims (13.5%), mainly traditional victims (4.5%), and dual victims (4.3%). Traditional victims and dual victims exhibited greater social anxiety and less self-esteem than cyber-victims, who exhibited greater social anxiety and less self-esteem than non-victims. Dual victims and traditional victims do not differ in social anxiety and self-esteem. The results contribute to the identification of patterns of victimization in school-age adolescents, and their relationship with social anxiety and self-esteem.

Keywords

Victimización, cibervictimización, ciberacoso, autoestima, ansiedad social, adolescencia

Victimization, cyber-victimization, cyberbullying, self-esteem, social anxiety, adolescence

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