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Revista Comunicar 67: La ciberconvivencia como escenario social: Ética y emociones (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Newsgames frente a los discursos del odio en la crisis de los refugiados

Newsgames against hate speech in the refugee crisis

https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-10

Salvador Gómez-García

María-Antonia Paz-Rebollo

José Cabeza-San-Deogracias

Abstract

La crisis de los refugiados ha sido el caldo de cultivo para unos discursos del odio, extendidos a través de las redes sociales, que presentan a los inmigrantes como un peligro y una amenaza. Los medios de comunicación han contribuido inconscientemente a su difusión, aunque algunos han reaccionado ampliando su actividad periodística tradicional a la creación de newsgames para buscar nuevas formas de contrarrestar el efecto de estos discursos. Esta investigación analiza cinco newsgames desarrollados por medios de comunicación de referencia a partir de una metodología basada en un análisis multimodal de carácter cualitativo (informativo y ludo-narrativo). Los resultados muestran que el jugador de newsgames tiene acceso a información veraz, como en otros formatos periodísticos, pero también dispone de otro tipo de información más próxima y emocional (circunstancias, sentimientos, vínculos familiares). Estos datos no aparecen de forma aislada, sino que se integran en la experiencia del juego. La investigación concluye identificando la interacción entre información e inmersión de los newsgames que componen la muestra, así como su diferente gradación: un mayor control del jugador dentro de la historia permite introducir matices que favorecen la empatía con los refugiados. Sin embargo, la mayor libertad en la experiencia de juego en los newsgames los aleja del modelo informativo clásico y puede implicar un mayor riesgo de distorsión de las ideas que intentan defender.

The refugee crisis has been a fertile ground for hate speech that has portrayed migrants as a dangerous threat and has been spread through social networks. While the media have unconsciously contributed to the proliferation of these racist messages, some have reacted by extending their traditional journalistic activity to the creation of newsgames to find new ways of addressing the situation. This study examines the use of five newsgames developed by leading media outlets using a methodology based on a multimodal qualitative analysis (informative and ludonarrative). The results showed that newsgames players have access to truthful information, as is the case for other journalistic genres, and draw on other types of personal and emotional information (circumstances, feelings, family ties). These data did not appear in isolation but integrated into the gaming experience. The study concludes by identifying the interaction between the levels of information and immersion of the newsgames that make up the sample, as well as their different gradation: giving the player the opportunity to make more significant decisions within the story allows for the introduction of nuances that promote empathy towards refugees; however, greater freedom in the gaming experience in newsgames distances them from the classic informational model and may involve a greater risk of distortion of the ideas that they seek to promote.

Keywords

Newsgames, discursos del odio, refugiados, análisis multimodal, ludificación, inmigración

Newsgames, hate speech, refugees, multimodal analysis, gamification, inmigration

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