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Revista Comunicar 68: Redes, movimientos sociales y sus mitos en un mundo hiperconectado (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Arquetipos, Me Too, Time’s Up y la representación de mujeres diversas en TV

Archetypes, Me Too, Time’s Up and the representation of diverse women on TV

https://doi.org/10.3916/C68-2021-02

Rocío Garrido

Anna Zaptsi

Abstract

Los movimientos feministas Me Too y Time’s Up han mostrado el poder de la industria audiovisual y las redes sociales para denunciar el acoso sexual y promover la equidad de género. No obstante, las mujeres en los medios –y, específicamente, en TV– siguen estando infrarrepresentadas y estereotipadas. Por ello, como señala Time's Up, es urgente aumentar la presencia femenina delante y detrás de las cámaras, así como integrar las influencias de los movimientos sociales en las producciones para ampliar los modelos arquetípicos utilizados en el diseño/análisis de personajes. A pesar de los beneficios narrativos de los arquetipos, estos se basan en mitos patriarcales y etnocéntricos que infravaloran la diversidad de las mujeres. En respuesta, este estudio explora la transferencia de los movimientos feministas a la presencia y representación femenina en las series emitidas en la era Peak TV. Desde una aproximación interseccional, se identifican 25 series feministas en Netflix y HBO y se presentan buenas prácticas de construcción de personajes femeninos útiles para la coeducación y el desarrollo de actitudes igualitarias en jóvenes. Estos amplían los arquetipos típicos (es decir, Conocedora, Cuidadora, Luchadora, Conflictiva, Cualquier mujer) y desafían los estereotipos. Se concluye una tendencia feminista en el contenido emitido en plataformas streaming, especialmente en series con alta presencia de mujeres delante/detrás de las cámaras (muchas vinculadas a movimientos feministas) que arroja luz sobre un panorama televisivo más igualitario e inclusivo.

The feminist movements Me Too and Time’s Up have showcased the power of the audiovisual industry and social networks denouncing sexual harassment and promoting gender equality. Nevertheless, women in the media –and, specifically, on TV– continue to be underrepresented and stereotyped. Then, according to Time’s Up, it is urgent to increase the number of women in front of and behind the cameras, as well as to embed social movements’ influences on media productions in order to broaden the archetypal models used for characters' design/analysis. Despite the benefits of archetypes in storytelling, they are based on patriarchal and ethnocentric myths that undervalue female diversity. In response, this paper explores the transference of these feminist movements in terms of female presence and representation on TV series broadcast in the Peak TV era. From an intersectional approach, 25 feminist series were identified, and good practices in the portrayal of female characters are presented as useful role models for co-education which can contribute to egalitarian attitudes in youth. These female characters amplify typical archetypes (i.e., Knower, Carer, Striver, Conflictor, Everywomen) by defying stereotypes. This study concludes that there is a feminist trend in streaming platforms’ content, especially in series with a high female presence on-screen/off-screen (many of them linked to feminist movements), that sheds light on a more egalitarian and inclusive television landscape.

Keywords

Feminismo, Me Too, Time’s Up, arquetipo, estereotipos, series de televisión

Feminism, Me Too, Time’s Up, archetype, stereotypes, TV serials

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