Índice de volúmenes - Índice de revistas - Índice de artículos - Mapa ---- Atrás


Revista Comunicar 68: Redes, movimientos sociales y sus mitos en un mundo hiperconectado (Vol. 29 - 2021)

El mito en las narrativas visuales del activismo medioambiental en Instagram

Myths in visual environmental activism narratives on Instagram

https://doi.org/10.3916/C68-2021-05

Elisenda Ardèvol

Sandra Martorell

Gemma San-Cornelio

Abstract

Las imágenes forman parte de las estrategias y prácticas comunicativas de los poderes hegemónicos y del activismo político. Recientemente se ha incorporado la imagen al estudio de los movimientos sociales, destacando la importancia del activismo visual en las redes sociales y sus nuevas formas narrativas. Sin embargo, se ha explorado con menor profundidad la relación entre estas narrativas visuales y las estructuras mitológicas y cómo operan para movilizar al cambio social. En este artículo analizaremos el papel de las imágenes meméticas en el activismo medioambiental en las redes sociales y cómo podemos entenderlas desde una perspectiva antropológica como mitos o narraciones que proponen un modelo para percibir, comprender, juzgar y actuar en el mundo. Nos basaremos en una investigación en curso sobre los «eco-influencers» en Instagram, tomando como objeto de análisis memes medioambientales caracterizados por plantear oposiciones binarias entre un «antes» y un «después». Este contraste establece una narrativa temporal y una proyección de futuro, que conlleva una relación de causa y efecto y una valoración moral de nuestra acción en el mundo. Argumentaremos que, en el caso del meme medioambiental, la aproximación desde el mito nos ayuda a comprender su agencia en la articulación del orden cósmico, social y personal en cuanto armoniza las acciones humanas con un orden cósmico a la vez que proyecta imágenes del orden cósmico al plano de la experiencia humana.

Images are part of the communication strategies of both the hegemonic powers and political activism. Images have recently been the focus of studies on social movements, highlighting the importance of visual activism in social media. However, the relationship between these visual narratives and mythological structures and how they operate to mobilize social change has not been significantly explored. This study analyses the role of environmental activism memes on social media and how, in anthropological terms, they can be understood as myths or narratives that offer a model for perceiving, understanding, judging and acting in the world. We draw from ongoing research into eco-influencers on Instagram, taking environmental memes characterized by binary oppositions of “before” and “after” as the study subject. This contrast establishes a temporal narrative and future prediction, involving a cause-and-effect relationship and a moral judgement of our actions. We argue that, in the case of the environmental meme, the myth-based approach helps in understanding its role in articulating the cosmic, social and personal orders as it brings human action into harmony with the cosmic order while projecting its images onto the human experience.

Keywords

Mitos, memes, activismo, sostenibilidad, Instagram, influencers

Myths, memes, activism, sustainability, Instagram, influencers

Archivo PDF español

Archivo PDF inglés

Referencias

Abidin, C. (2017). # familygoals: Family influencers, calibrated amateurism, and justifying young digital labor. Social Media+ Society, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305117707191

Ardèvol, E., & Gómez?Cruz, E. (2012). Digital ethnography and media practices. The international encyclopedia of media studies, 498-518. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444361506.wbiems193

Barthes, R. (2014). Mitologías. Siglo XXI Editores México.

Bashir, N.Y., Lockwood, P., Chasteen, A.L., Nadolny, D., & Noyes, I. (2013). The ironic impact of activists: Negative stereotypes reduce social change influence. European Journal of Social Psychology 43(7), 614-26. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.1983

Castells, M. (2013). Communication power. OUP Oxford. https://doi.org/10.4000/books.editionsmsh.10551

Costanza-Chock, S. (2012). Mic Check! Media cultures and the occupy movement. Social Movement Studies, 11(3-4), 375-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.710746

Cozen, B. (2013). Mobilizing artists: Green Patriot posters, visual metaphors, and climate change activism. Environmental Communication, 7(2), 297-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2013.777353

Daiute, C., & Lightfoot, C. (2004). Narrative analysis: Studying the development of individuals in society. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412985246

Demos, T.J. (2016). Between rebel creativity and reification: For and against visual activism. Journal of Visual Culture, 15(1), 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412915619459

Geertz, C. (1989). La interpretación de las culturas. Gedisa.

Georgakopoulou, A. (2016). Small stories research: A narrative paradigm for the analysis of social media. The Sage Handbook of social media research methods. Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473983847.n17

Haenfler, R., Johnson, B., & Jones, E. (2012). Lifestyle movements: Exploring the intersection of lifestyle and social movements. Social Movement Studies, 11(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.640535

Hariman, R., & Lucaites, J.L. (2007). No caption needed: Iconic photographs, public culture, and liberal democracy. University of Chicago Press. https://bit.ly/30giOR8

Hine, C. (2005). Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the Internet. Berg Publishers.

Kozinets, R.V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. Sage Pub.

Leaver, T., Highfield, T., & Abidin, C. (2020). Instagram: Visual social media cultures. John Wiley & Sons.

Lévi-Strauss, C. (1987). Antropología estructural: Mito, sociedad, humanidades. Siglo XXI.

Leviston, Z., Price, J., & Bishop, B. (2014). Imagining climate change: The role of implicit associations and affective psychological distancing in climate change responses. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(5), 441-454. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2050

Lowenthal, D. (1995). The forfeit of the future. Futures, 27(4), 385-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(95)00017-Q

Mann, C., & Stewart, F. (2000). Internet communication and qualitative research: A handbook for researching online. Routledge.

Markham, A. (2013). Remix cultures, remix methods: Reframing qualitative inquiry for social media contexts. In 8th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry (pp. 63-81). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315428093-3

Marwick, A.E. (2013). Status update: Celebrity, publicity, and branding in the social media age. Yale University Press.

Matalon, L.J. (2019). Modern problems require modern solutions: Internet memes and copyright. Texas Law Review, 98(2), 405-437. https://bit.ly/38jEtMS

Meso-Ayerdi, K., Mendiguren-Galdospín, T., & Pérez-Dasilva, J. (2017). Memes políticos difundidos por usuarios de Twitter. Análisis de la jornada electoral del 26J de 2016. El Profesional de la Información, 26(4), 672-683. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2017.jul.11

Murphy, M. (2019). Zero waste on Instagram through the lens of precautionary consumption. Gettysburg Social Sciences Review, 3(1), 22-39. https://bit.ly/3rk6gUK

Norstrom, R., & Sarna, P. (2021). Internet memes in Covid-19 lockdown times in Poland. [Memes de Internet en tiempos de confinamiento por Covid-19 en Polonia]. Comunicar, 67. http://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-06

Nowak, J. (2016). Internet meme as a meaningful discourse: Towards a theory of multiparticipant popular online content. Central European Journal of Communication, 9(1), 73-89. https://doi.org/10.19195/1899-5101.9.1(16).5

Ortoleva, P. (2009). Modern mythologies, the media and the social presence of technology. Observatorio (OBS) Journal, 3, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.7458/OBS312009163

O’Neill, S.J., Boykoff, M., Niemeyer, S., & Day, S.A. (2013). On the use of imagery for climate change engagement. Global Environmental Change, 23(2), 413-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.11.006

Penney, J. (2020). 'It's so hard not to be funny in this situation': Memes and humor in U.S. youth online political expression. Television & New Media, 21(8), 791-806. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527476419886068

Piñeiro-Otero, T., & Martínez-Rolán, X. (2016). Los memes en el activismo feminista en la Red: #ViajoSola como ejemplo de movilización transnacional. Cuadernos.info, 39, 17-37. https://doi.org/10.7764/cdi.39.1040

Pink, S., Horst, H., Postill, J., Hjorth, L., Lewis, T., & Tacchi, J. (2016). Digital ethnography: Principles and practice. Sage Pub.

Postill, J. (2014). Freedom technologists and the new protest movements: A theory of protest formulas. Convergence, 20(4), 402-418. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856514541350

Postill, J. (2018). The rise of nerd politics. Digital activism and political change. Pluto Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv4ncp67

Postill, J., & Pink, S. (2012). Social media ethnography: The digital researcher in a messy web. Media International Australia, 145(1), 123-134. https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X1214500114

Rogers, R. (2009). The end of the virtual: Digital methods. Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789056295936

Roser-Renouf, C., Maibach, E.W., Leiserowitz, A., & Xiaoquan, Z. (2014). The genesis of climate change activism: From key beliefs to political action. Climatic Change, 125, 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1173-5

Ross, A., & Rivers, D.J. (2018). Internet memes, media frames, and the conflicting logics of climate change discourse. Environmental Communication, 13(7), 975-994. https://doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2018.1560347

Rovira, G. (2017). Activismo en red y multitudes conectadas. Icaria. https://bit.ly/3bpepBX

Rowan, J. (2015). Memes, jóvenes y política. In J. Subirats (Ed.), Ya nada será lo mismo. Los efectos del cambio tecnológico en la política, los partidos y el activismo juvenil (pp. 298-303). Centro Reina Sofía sobre Adolescencia y Juventud. https://bit.ly/3roEbf6

San-Cornelio, G., & Roig, A. (2018). Selfies and cultural events: Mixed methods for the study of selfies in context. International Journal of Communication, 12, 2773-2792.

San-Cornelio, G., Ardèvol, E., & Martorell, S. (2020). El estilo de vida como narrativa: análisis de las conexiones entre activismo y consumo en influencers medioambientales en Instagram [Conference]. XII Congreso Internacional Latina de Comunicación Social, Madrid, España.

Senft, T.M. (2013). Microcelebrity and the branded self. In J. Hartley, J. Burgess, & A. Bruns (Eds.), A companion to new media dynamics (pp. 346-354). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118321607.ch22

Shifman, L. (2013). Memes in a digital world: Reconciling with a conceptual troublemaker. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(3), 362-377. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12013

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology: An overview. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 273–285). Sage Publications.

Treré, E. (2012). Social movements as information ecologies: Exploring the coevolution of multiple Internet technologies for activism. International Journal of Communication, 6(19), 2359-2377. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315438177

Treré, E. (2018). Hybrid media activism: Ecologies, imaginaries, algorithms. Routledge.

Vitiuk, I., Polishchuk, O., Kovtun, N., & Fed, V. (2020). Memes as the phenomenon of modern digital culture. WISDOM, 15(2), 45-55. https://doi.org/10.24234/wisdom.v15i2.361

Waddock, S., Waddell, S., & Gray, P.S. (2020). The transformational change challenge of memes: The case of marriage equality in the United States. Bussiness & Society, 59(8), 1667-1697. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650318816440