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Revista Comunicar 68: Redes, movimientos sociales y sus mitos en un mundo hiperconectado (Vol. 29 - 2021)

Los efectos del uso de Internet por niños: Un estudio longitudinal en China

The effects of children’s Internet use: A Chinese longitudinal study


Lin Ye

Xiaolin Xia

Peiye Jiang

Ting Jiang

Yangyang Liu


En este estudio, investigamos los efectos mediadores del uso de Internet por parte de los niños en la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico de la familia y su éxito académico y si los efectos mediadores varían entre diferentes disciplinas académicas. Usamos los datos de Estudios de Paneles de las Familias Chinas sobre el nivel socioeconómico de las familias de los niños, el uso de Internet por parte de los niños y su rendimiento académico. Hubo 2.686 participantes en 2014 (mujeres=1.272), 2.330 participantes (mujeres=1.069) en 2016 y 2.485 participantes (mujeres=1.151) en 2018. El estado socioeconómico y el uso de Internet se midieron mediante un cuestionario. Las pruebas estandarizadas midieron el rendimiento académico. Nuestros hallazgos mostraron que el nivel socioeconómico de la familia se relaciona positivamente con el éxito en matemáticas, pero no significativamente con los puntajes chinos. Los resultados indicaron que el uso de Internet no mediaba en la relación entre el estatus socioeconómico familiar en 2014 y el rendimiento matemático en 2016, mientras que la frecuencia de uso de Internet para estudiar en 2016 mediaba en parte la relación entre el estatus socioeconómico familiar en 2016 y el rendimiento matemático en 2018. Nuestros hallazgos proponen que el uso de Internet sólo puede mediar en la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico de la familia y el éxito en matemáticas, y los efectos mediadores se vuelven más fuertes con el paso del tiempo.

In this study, we investigate the mediating effects of children’s Internet use on the relationship between family socioeconomic status and their academic achievement, and whether the mediating effects vary across different academic subjects. We used the data from the China Family Panel Studies on the socioeconomic status of children's families, children’s Internet use, and their academic performance. In the 2014 sample, there were 2,686 participants (females=1,272). In 2016, there were 2,330 participants (females=1,069), and in 2018, there were 2,485 participants (females=1,151). The socioeconomic status and the Internet use were measured by a questionnaire. Standardized tests measured the academic performance. Our findings showed that family socioeconomic status was positively related to math performance, but not significantly related to Chinese performance. The results also indicated that Internet use did not significantly mediate the relationship between family socioeconomic status in 2014 and math performance in 2016, while the frequency of Internet use to study in 2016 partly mediated the relationship between family socioeconomic status in 2016 and math performance in 2018. Our findings suggest that Internet use can only mediate the relationship between family socioeconomic status and math performance and the mediating effects become stronger over time.


Nivel socioeconómico, Internet, éxito académico, niños, matemáticas, idiomas

Socioeconomic status, Internet, academic achievement, children, math, language

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