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Revista Comunicar 70: Nuevos retos del profesorado ante la enseñanza digital (Vol. 30 - 2022)

Desinformación y multialfabetización: Una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Disinformation and multiliteracy: A systematic review of the literature

https://doi.org/10.3916/C70-2022-08

Jesús Valverde-Berrocoso

Alberto González-Fernández

Jesús Acevedo-Borrega

Abstract

El problema de la desinformación es una amenaza para los sistemas democráticos. Es un fenómeno global que debe ser abordado desde múltiples perspectivas, siendo la pedagógica una de las más relevantes y, por ello, es necesario conocer qué modelos didácticos se han desarrollado para empoderar a la ciudadanía ante la desinformación. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de la literatura (2011-2020) bajo el protocolo PRISMA y se analizaron artículos de investigación (n=76) extraídos de tres bases de datos (Wos, Scopus y ERIC). El análisis fue realizado con apoyo de gestores bibliográficos y de minería de textos. Se da respuesta a ocho preguntas de investigación sobre el marco conceptual, las características documentales y la dimensión pedagógica. El análisis documental ofrece una visión del papel de las alfabetizaciones múltiples en la investigación educativa sobre el fenómeno de la desinformación, destacando la relevancia de la «alfabetización mediática» y la «informacional», así como la emergencia de la «alfabetización en noticias» y en «datos». Se evidencia la necesidad de adoptar enfoques interdisciplinares. Con relación a los resultados educativos, se identifican tres enfoques pedagógicos: estrategias competenciales, centrado en contenidos y educación para la ciudadanía. Las prácticas de enseñanza más frecuentes son la realización de talleres y el diseño de programaciones didácticas. El desarrollo del pensamiento crítico, las experiencias en co-construcción de conocimientos y los valores de la educación cívica son fundamentales contra la desinformación.

Disinformation is a serious problem for democratic systems in open societies. It is a global phenomenon that must be studied from different approaches and the educational dimension is one of the most relevant. It is necessary to know what educational models have been developed to empower citizens against disinformation. A systematic review of the literature (2011-2020), following the PRISMA protocol, was carried out by analyzing articles (n=76) extracted from three databases (Wos, Scopus and ERIC). Reference management and text mining software was used to data analyse. Eight research questions were answered on the conceptual framework, bibliometrics characteristics and pedagogical dimension. From the results of the content analysis emerges a vision of the role of multiliteracies in educational research and the problem of disinformation: media and information literacies are the most relevant and news and data literacies are incorporated. The need to adopt interdisciplinary approaches is confirmed. From the results of the educational dimension, three pedagogical approaches are identified: strategies for competencies development; focused on content and education for citizenship. Workshops and lesson plans are the most common teaching practices. The development of critical thinking, experiences in the co-construction of knowledge, and the values of civic education are fundamental against disinformation.

Keywords

Desinformación, noticias falsas, alfabetización mediática, alfabetización informacional, alfabetización digital, modelo educativo

Disinformation, fake news, media literacy, informational literacy, digital literacy, educational model

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