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Revista Comunicar 70: Nuevos retos del profesorado ante la enseñanza digital (Vol. 30 - 2022)

El engagement y la deserción en los MOOCs: Revisión sistemática

Engagement and desertion in MOOCs: Systematic review

https://doi.org/10.3916/C70-2022-09

Odiel Estrada-Molina

Dieter-Reynaldo Fuentes-Cancell

Abstract

Los cursos en línea masivos y abiertos (MOOCs) permiten satisfacer necesidades de aprendizaje desde las particularidades de sus tipologías (xMOOC, tMOOC, cMOOC, iMOOC, entre otras), sin embargo, es aún latente su alta tasa de deserción. Estudios recientes reafirman el engagement como una alternativa para disminuir los índices de deserción. La literatura analizada aún no logra sistematizar respuestas a ¿cómo garantizar el engagement en los MOOCs y disminuir así su tasa de deserción? Y, en coherencia con esa pregunta, ¿existen aún retos del profesorado en este ámbito de la tecnología educativa? Ello motivó a realizar esta revisión sistemática para determinar cómo se ha trabajado el engagement para contribuir a disminuir la tasa de deserción en los MOOCs. Se revisaron artículos de revistas indexadas en Scopus o en WoS aplicando el protocolo PRISMA. Al finalizar el protocolo se definió analizar 40 estudios. Los resultados reflejan que las principales variables son: el diseño e-actividades; la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca y; la comunicación entre los estudiantes. Se ratifica que los principales retos para garantizar el engagement en los MOOCs son: la tutoría individualizada; la interactividad; y la retroalimentación. Debido a la escasez de estudios que analicen de forma integrada las variables antes mencionadas, se propone como trabajo futuro, determinar qué relaciones existen entre estas variables que intervienen en el engagement y la deserción en los MOOCs.

Massive and open online courses (MOOCs) satisfy learning needs from the particularities of their typologies (xMOOC, tMOOC, cMOOC, iMOOC, among others) even though their high dropout rate is still latent. Recent studies reaffirm engagement as an alternative to reduce dropout rates. The literature analyzed has not yet been able to systematize responses as to how to guarantee engagement in MOOCs and thus reduce their attrition rate. And, consistent with that question, are there still challenges for teachers in this area of educational technology? These answers motivated us to carry out this systematic review to determine how engagement has been studied to help reduce the attrition rate in MOOCs. Articles from journals indexed in Scopus or WoS were reviewed applying the PRISMA protocol. At the end of the protocol, it was defined to analyze 40 studies. The results reflect that the main variables are: the design of e-activities, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and communication between students. This paper confirms that the main challenges to guarantee engagement in MOOCs are individualized tutoring, interactivity, and feedback. Due to the scarcity of studies that analyze the variables in an integrated way, it is proposed as future work to determine what relationships exist between these variables that interfere with engagement and dropout in MOOCs.

Keywords

Compromiso, MOOC, sMOOC, tMOOC, xMOOC, aprendizaje

Engagement, MOOC, sMOOC, tMOOC, xMOOC, learning

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Archivo PDF inglés

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