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Revista Comunicar 72: Sociedad de la desinformación: El impacto de las fake news en la esfera pública (Vol. 30 - 2022)

Creadores y espectadores frente al desorden informativo online. Efectos de la producción de contenidos digitales en competencias informativas

Creators and spectators facing online information disorder. Effects of digital content production on information skills

https://doi.org/10.3916/C72-2022-01

Gabriela Taddeo

Belinda de-Frutos-Torres

María-Cruz Alvarado

Abstract

La desinformación en las redes sociales es un problema al que se enfrenta nuestra sociedad. La experiencia de uso no garantiza el éxito para identificar la información falsa. El estudio pretende determinar si un rol activo en los medios sociales influye en las competencias informacionales. Para ello se diseñó una encuesta que se aplicó a 756 jóvenes entre 16 y 26 años de diversos niveles educativos. Los resultados muestran un perfil de usuarios «creadores» que participan en la generación de contenidos propios y en compartir sus recomendaciones abiertamente, frente a otro, los «espectadores», centrados en el entretenimiento y la interacción. El perfil creador es la variable que más contribuye a denunciar noticias falsas en las redes sociales. A la hora de contrastar la información, el nivel educativo es el aspecto más relevante, aunque los resultados académicos y los usuarios creadores también suponen una aportación significativa. Una mayor confianza en las fuentes presentes en las redes sociales distingue al perfil activo, mientras que la desconfianza está asociada con los espectadores. Desde la educación mediática se recomienda emprender acciones destinadas a recuperar la confianza en los medios sociales para que puedan ser utilizados de modo crítico, favoreciendo un uso activo y no reactivo de los mismos.

Misinformation on social media is a major problem facing our society. The experience deriving from use does not guarantee success in identifying false information. This study seeks to determine whether an active role in social media impacts on informational skills. For this purpose, we designed a survey that was administered to 756 young people between 16 and 26 years of age from different educational levels. The results show a profile of creative users who participate in generating their own content and sharing their recommendations openly, as opposed to another profile, the “spectators”, focused on entertainment and interaction. The creator profile is the variable that most contributes to reporting fake news on social media. When contrasting information, educational level is the most relevant aspect, although academic results and creator users also represent a significant contribution. Greater trust in the sources found on social media identifies the active profile, while distrust is associated with the spectators. We recommend that media education puts in place actions intended to recuperate trust in social media, so that they can be utilized critically, encouraging active, not reactive use.

Keywords

Redes sociales, desinformación, desorden informativo, competencia mediática, habilidades informativas, creadores

Social media, disinformation, information disorder, media literacy, information skills, creators

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