Comunicar Journal Blog

The Transformative Image: Revisiting an Old-school Concept

Andres et al. provide an insightful analytical framework to examine how the photograph of Aylan Kurdi engenders social transformation on the Syrian refugee crisis. The iconographic and iconological analyses in the article verify the power of visual images to provoke strong emotions—by mobilizing social conscience, they induce solidarity. “An image for solidarity is an image that can be appropriated by citizens to enable them to express themselves, to denounce and to recreate” (Andres et al. 2016). The process in which the widely circulated Aylan photograph turns into a solidarity movement operates in a grassroot communication model, in which citizens participate by engaging the image in a chain of resignification.

The semiotization of the Aylan photograph must proceed within the rules of the medium—photography—which Andres et al. have addressed in their iconographic analysis. The way in which photography is produced and reproduced is central to the medium’s ability to make meaning and induce social change. With that in mind, Walter Benjamin’s conceptualization of photography as mechanical reproduction of art presents three aspects that complement with Andres et al.’s framework.

Benjamin’s conceptualization is located within the context of photography, by capturing still images, reproduces real life situations, which in this case is the historical context of Aylan washed up drowned on a beach in Turkey amid the Syrian refugee crisis.

The first aspect of pictorial reproduction that has to do with the capacity to induce solidarity is that photography can bring out aspects of the original that is unattainable with the eye yet accessible through the lens. When one encounters the Aylan photograph, the naked eye may not perceive the full emotional impact one does through the lens, due to the lack of photographic technique such as the emphatic subjectivity of the low angle and the sense of impotence induced by the shallow depth of field. Such process reproduction of the scene assists in amplifying the beholders’ emotional response, thus mobilizing social conscience.

Second, technical reproduction can put the copy of the original into situations which would be out of reach for the original itself. The wide circulation of the Aylan image is attained largely due to the reproducibility of the photograph. And without vast dissemination channels such as social media, the image may only be seen on a few newspapers. Reproducibility of the photograph coupled with dynamic media networks make the image available in the public sphere, which is prerequisite for solidarity.

Third, mechanical reproduction permits replicas to meet the beholder in his own particular situation. Although reappropriation of the image sparks ethical debates, it contributes to the formation of solidarity when audiences actively engage with the image within their own contexts. An individualized view of the issue makes it meaningful to every beholder in their own distinct approaches. The bottom-up assemblage of individual will burgeons into a collective solidarity movement.

In Benjamin’s original conceptualization, mechanical reproduction was shed in a negative light for its destruction of the original’s “authenticity.” Today, pictorial reproduction becomes central to positive social change, with its unique capacity to get “closer” with citizens, ultimately leading to meaningful social action.

Aylan_Kurdi_graffiti

(Image taken from Thierry Ehrmann’s flickr)

Reference:

  1. de-Andres, Susana, Eloisa Nos-Aldas, and Agustin Garcia-Matilla. “The Transformative Image. The Power of a Photograph for Social Change: The Death of Aylan.” Comunicar 47 (2016). Accessed March 13, 2016. doi: 10.3916/C47-2016-03
  2. Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility.” In Film Theory and Criticism, edited by Gerald Mast and Marshall Cohen, 675-94. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

[Comunicar]:Communication, Civil Society, and Social Change

Do you want to read about good practices and communicative innovations that foster people’s political engagement?

Comunicar offers the preprints of issue 47 coordinated by our thematic editors Dr. Eloísa Nos Aldás, Universitat Jaume I of Castellón, Spain  and Dr. Matt Baillie Smith, Northumbria University Newcastle, United Kingdom.

Watching and Tweeting: Youngsters’ Responses to Media Representations of Resistance Alfonso Gutiérrez Martín & Alba Torrego. Valladolid & Segovia (Spain)DOI:10.3916/C47-2016-01

Digital Civic Activism in Romania: Framing anti-Chevron Online Protest Community «Faces» Camelia Cmeciu & Cristina Coman. Bucarest (Romania) DOI:10.3916/C47-2016-02

The Transformative Image. The Power of a Photograph for Social Change: The Death of Aylan  Susana de Andrés del Campo, Eloísa Nos Aldás & Agustín García Matilla. Segovia, Castellón & Valladolid (Spain) DOI:10.3916/C47-2016-03

Professional Information Skills and Open Data. Challenges for Citizen Empowerment and Social Change María Carmen Gertrudis Casado, Manuel Gértrudix Barrio & Sergio Álvarez García. Madrid (Spain) DOI:10.3916/C47-2016-04

Community Media as Exercise of Communicative Citizenship: Experiences from Argentina and Ecuador Mauro Cerbino & Francesca Belotti. Quito & Roma (Ecuador & Italy) DOI:10.3916/C47-2016-05

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Comunicar: Internet and Emotions

Addressed to the worldwide research community, the article Internet and Emotions: New Trends in an Emerging Field of Research (Serrano Puche, 2016) is a useful guide both for researchers and practitioners.  It overcomes the typical dissociation between different research fields and explains the importance of affect, the mediation effect of emotions in any human activity, also while surfing the net or in relation to the use of digital technology. This article reviews studies that have analized emotions such as empathy, annoyance, envy or jealousy, resentment, hope, hatred or grief  expressed in the different social media. Not less relevant is the analysis of emotional contagion through social networks and the viral spread phenomenon. Without any doubt, the study of emotions  in any research field, as in this case in Media and Communications studies, helps us to better understand the way in which this affection has an influence on the personal identity of humans.

internet and emotions

New media and political engagement of opposition party and the citizens in Cambodia

The Medias in Cambodia is apparently changed, especially after this last national election when the Cambodian People’s Party (CPP), the most influential party, which ruled this country over the last three decades, lost its seats from 90 to 68 over the total 123 seats in the National Assembly. Also, it pushed to free the innocent political prisoners and forced to imprison the government official who committed crimes, according to Kem Ley, the analysts and researcher.

Cambodia has more than 20 TV channels, 160 radio stations, 380 national newspapers and nearly 40 international newspapers, the statistics of the ministry of information, Cambodia. Its population is around 15 million.

Media in Cambodia are divided into the pro – government, anti – government, independent news agencies and the shadow news companies, says Van Vichar, the former senior news reporter of Radio Free Asia (RFA), the anti – government radio in Cambodia.

Given that most of the mass media are strictly controlled by the government, the opposition party uses Facebook, which recently becomes the most influential media, to voice their political opinion.

The Opposition party created a facebook page called “Sam Rainsy,” the name of the party leader with nearly two million Facebook users, who liked and followed this page.

It is the biggest ever result in historic Cambodia poll since 1993 when the opposition party won nearly half of the total seats in the national assembly.

I believe Cambodian young people are the most active population using facebook to engage in public affairs. More than 6.6 million eligible voters, 3.5 million were between 18 to 30 years old. As resulted, the opposition party got more than 2.9 million votes, whereas the ruling party received a dogfight result of about 3.2 million votes, according to National Election Committee statistic.

The public policy set by opposition party during the election campaign, got more attention from middle – aged voters such as, increasing salary for government officials, creating more jobs for fresh graduates and decreasing oil price, as well. When those policies were reached the voters through any means of social media, they vote for that party in hoping for a better change.

In the article published in Comunicar (2012, vol. 20) titled «Media Literacy and Its Use as a Method to Encourage Civic Engagement» composed by Culver & Jacobson, they revealed that new media education platform is very important to cultivate young people’s citizenship. «All programs used technology as a means to an end, not as the ultimate goal. In each program, students learned about new technologies and how to use them. But this use was always in the service of a broader goal, that of helping the students to become more active civic participants. Students learned how to use a particular technology so they could tell their story about a specific.

In Cambodia, in recent years, new media use among young population has increased dramatically not only for entertainment, but also for easier access to public affairs. However, it’s still a great need of media literacy education. For example, when everybody can use new media to spread information, there is a big possibility that both authentic and fake news can appear.

In the recent election, few days before the election, there was a rumor about the leading party government’s president, saying that he was dead because of disease. Immediately, Cambodian People Party, the ruling party declared it was fake information by showing their leader’s face on the TV screen.

Sam Rainsy’s Cambodian National Rescue Party president claimed that his party won election, “At least, at least 63 seat.” The statement was issued on his Facebook page on the day after the election was completely ended. However, the result was officially declared by the National Election Committee, the ruling party was still the only party which led the government.

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Rally welcome for the opposition party leaders during the election campaign. Photo: Leanghort SOK

Comunicar,Call for Papers: Technologies and second languages

Comunicar 50 (01-2017):
Technologies and second languages

   Thematic Editors:
Dr. Kris Buyse, KU Leuven (Belgium)
Dr. M.Carmen Fonseca-Mora, University of Huelva (Spain)

Deadline: May 30, 2016

In this era of technological revolution, we welcome the fact that technologies and their proper use and consumption, as well as the ability to communicate in one or more languages, contribute to connecting users in this globalized world. Our communicative spaces have expanded exponentially and therefore require appropriate training. Digital media can promote independent learning of modern languages both inside and outside the classroom, but they always require the guidance of an expert. Communicative competence in several languages -especially English, Spanish and Chinese- and digital competence are essential skills that open access and mobility within the job market in the 21st century. The use of educational technology in learning a foreign language has evolved considerably. Initially, computer-aided programs for learning languages involved the possibility of individual and independent work to reinforce gaps and find solutions on the go, but now the focus has switched to a collaborative learning guided by experts. On the other hand, knowing a second language -especially English as the international language of academia- can help anyone to expand their information skills by searching for content on internet and databases. Currently, the use of ICT increases interaction and collaboration with other native or non-native speakers beyond the classroom. Users have become not only prosumers, receivers and consumers, but also creators of digital content and oral and written messages. Digital resources available for teachers and students are, among others, Blogs, wikis, emails, Facebook, twitter, Skype, hangouts, podcasts, video games, video clips, virtual platforms. In addition, the ubiquity of mobile devices (Tablets, iPads, phones, laptops, etc.) allows and facilitates communication anywhere and anytime. However, we still have much to learn about its true impact on second language teaching and acquisition, and about how this possibility of global communication impacts on the transformation of ethical, responsible and critical citizens into true global citizens.

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Framing a Story- Journalistic Challenge to Put Issues in Context

The article in Comunicar called Online and Mobilized Students: The Use of Facebook in the Chilean Student Protests written by Cristian (2014) demonstrated what roles Facebook plays during the 2011 Chilean student movement by analyzing Facebook’s page of the Student Federation of the University of Chile (FECH).  The findings listed the positive effects of Facebook on facilitating a sound environment to Chilean student protest. But except for acknowledging its significance, the credibility of posts on Facebook and how can journalists respond should also be concerned.

In 2011, Chile experienced massive mobilizations for seven months, where young people played a leading role in the discussion over education. During these events, Facebook was one of the digital social networks most widely used by the mobilized organizations, the messages published by FECH demonstrated that the following communication functions were used on Facebook: disseminating and framing information, responding to opponents and traditional media, counteracting official information, calling for public demonstrations and events, highlighting the positive results of the protest actions and support obtained, calling for adhesion, and finally, acknowledging and identifying the main detractors of the movement.

Compared with the protests in Chile, the sunflower movement in Taiwan in which students calls for opposing trade pact with mainland China indicates the social media could be the source of news but it lacks social credibility. It is almost a year since students and activists occupied Taiwan’s parliament, in protest at a controversial trade deal with China. The so-called Sunflower Movement was sparked by increasing public unease over China’s influence on the island’s economy (Sui, 2015). It is because posts are mostly recorded directly or comment with preference. But journalists are not only the recorders. This is what social media cannot provide. Journalist professionals will take more time to take interviews, collect data and present the piece in a proper way, while the way they frame a story to put issues in context is challengeable.

Students are calling for opposing trade pact with mainland in the sunflower movement in Taiwan.
Students are calling for opposing trade pact with mainland in the sunflower movement in Taiwan.

As journalists are asked to twitter everyday, hardcore news or soft news are usually mixed with the gossip that is difficult to discuss without basic finds.  «When ‘for Dummy’ became dominate, we, journalists must be better doorkeepers», Yi-shan Chen, deputy editor of Taiwan’s Common Wealth magazine said on the forum. During the sunflower movement, her students attended the protests and reported. It didn’t take much time to shoot with phones and made comments but what the «reporter» perceive may not be the fact.

It is necessary to clarify information with mainstream media’s platform, but the ways how journalists present the news and explain to public matters more. Chen talked 3 basic requirements of her column «Economic Explanation» that how they cover the issue with problem and solutions, how they use graphics and even animations help to explain hardcore issues and how their journalist can explain the issues clearly in public. All of the forms served for a better understanding of readers towards the topic.

At the SOPA forum, winners are sharing their opinions towards journalism’s value in today’s society.
At the SOPA forum, winners are sharing their opinions towards journalism’s value in today’s society.

Another speaker Nancy C. Carvajal is a reporter for the Philippine Daily Inquirer. She talked practical skills of searching sources for news stories. «Journalist is telling the truth, we should verify all the interviewee’s saying and ask for support and further proof for our readers,» Carvajal said. When social networking sites were not used only for this counter-framing, but also for communicating the message of the mobilized students, the credibility and truth of news should come first.

References

Quijada, C., Cristian. (2014). Online and Mobilized Students: The Use of Facebook in the Chilean Student Protests. Comunicar Journal 43: Media Prosumers (Vol. 22 – 2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C43-2014-02

Sui, C. (2015). What has Taiwan’s Sunflower Movement achieved a year on? BBC

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-32229214

Reflection on the Symposium on Twitter, Weibo, WeChat and the ‘We’ movement: Microblogging and Journalism in China and Australia

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When you are browsing this site, you are using one type of what we call the new media – the communication device connected to the internet and with which to transmit information in immediacy. We are no longer a stranger to smart phone and tablets, in schools, workplaces and our homes. Even our four-year-old kid and eighty-year-old granny can find a way to get in touch with the new media.

With no doubt, those working in the communication industry – journalists and media practitioners, have been living a new media life. This symposium focuses on the impact brought by the new media to nowadays media industry. Most of the presented invited to the symposium are media practitioners instead of university scholars. The whole afternoon was filled with innovative ideas and thrilling challenges in front of today’s media practitioners. According to a freelance journalist based in Australia, on the one hand, the new media environment has provided a huge platform for journalists to have direct interaction with their sources and audience, as a way to getting more first hand information and feedback. On the other hand, it is also easy for him to get involved in political conflicts as their words were written publicly online. Despite of all these, the journalist still regards direct online communication a positive thing. «It is a test of your journalism!», he said. These challenges drive journalists to carefully verify their information and make judgements reasonably.

The new media also brings unexpected challenges to magazine designers and editors. According to an editor from Guangzhou, China, through years’ experiment, his team found that an online magazine could never be only a replication of the hard-copy magazine. Even though the online version can provide more contents, a magazine is still a magazine.

After trials and errors, they gradually find a way to make breakthrough – inventing innovative activities to draw target audience’s attention. Although the magazine editor said «we just cater to our target audience’s taste», I wonder, are they really simply following the users’ need?

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From a critical perspective, the mass media, as part of the commercial world, is somewhat creating the needs for people. In this process, the mass media brings forth an illusion to the public that they «need» to have «something» in order to act like the class they are pursuing. In the presentation, the CityMagazine’s target audience is mainly the middle-class youths living an bourgeoise lifestyle – «literature youth» as people usually call them. To certain extent, this group of «literature youth» has created a lucrative economic circle, including particular types of bookstores, theaters and hand-craft stores. On the internet, there is even a list of equipments a «literature youth» should have. In this sense, I think what the CityMagazine tries to do is creating the needs for the «literature youths» situated near Guangzhou. For example, they invited bloggers to introduce Taiwan’s home-stay («literature youths» do not believe in traditional authority but trust someone seems more «neighbourhood»). Another activity was inviting a group of «core users» to taste the magazine’s trade-mark headphone (as a by-product of their mini concert). To their surprise, the headphones were soon sold out, even the price was not cheap at all!

New media is really changing our life. Not only in a way that it fastens the information transmission or transcends the border. But also it is changing the relationship between humankind and the external environment. Reading a magazine is far beyond consuming and reading, but has become a 360-degree experience. On the one hand, people got more opportunities to explore. On the other hand, the capitalists have found more channels to earn money.

“30 rules of being a literature youth” (I am sorry, it’s in Chinese) http://www.citytalk.tw/bbs/thread-103366-不可不知,關於假文青的30件事-1.html

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LIU Jing: Measuring Journalists’ New Media Literacy in the Age of New Media: New Media Literacy Survey in Guangzhou China

This study conducted by a research group from South China Normal University offers a picture of what role the Chinese journalists is playing in the age of new media. The program sought to find out what media literacy levels Chinese journalists are on and investigate how the media literacy of journalists is changing in the age of new media.

Thematic Researchers:

Zhang Xuebo, Professor, South China Normal University, China.

Zhong Xiao, Graduate student, South China Normal University, China.

Today, the power of new media has influenced all aspects of our society, and the digital revolution is transforming everything in the news production. The way how the news is gathered and delivered has gone through several dramatic changes, the line between news producers and news audience starts to blur. Under these circumstances, the concept of media literacy needs to be updated, and producers’ new media literacy has become more vital and more complex than ever in the digital age.

Guangzhou, a southern flourishing city benefited from China’s Reform and Opening Up policy has been selected as the core investigating location for the journalists’ media literacy survey.

The data in the report have been gathered from multiple sources such as questionnaire and dozens of interviews. The number of questionnaire distributed in Guangzhou is 310, among that 302 copies are calculated as the valid questionnaires, the recovery rate is 96.6%, and the effective recovery rate is 97.4%. 124 male journalists and 166 female journalists from Guangzhou have participated in the empirical study. The education level of the journalists is 4.5% of them graduated from junior college, 70% of them are bachelor degree, 24.8% of them are master degree, and 7% of them are doctor degree. The data shows that the level of education is generally high among the group of journalists in Guangzhou, indicating that the adjustment strategy of talent fostering in Guangdong province has yielded great efforts since the last century.

Journalists’ new media literacy is seen to have the proficiency and communication competencies to communicate, respond, and to evaluate correctly within the realm of new media technologies. Here are some encouraging facts we have found in the study survey.

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In the past, delivering news to audience in media is the main ability of media literacy for journalists. Since new media are changing how people connect to each other and how news is presented and shared, targeting and interacting with audience have been viewed as important components of journalists’ new media literacy today. The main objectives of the survey mainly focus on the following two points:

Firstly, on the survey questions about the cognition of audience, about 36.2% of the respondents agree that journalists should chase after the issues that most of the audience are interested in, 37.9% of the respondents agree that the presentation form of the news report should be in conformity with audiences’ flavor, and 43.8% of the respondents agree to the statement that reporters should pay attention to the audience’s feedback. It’s a good thing that a majority of journalists are aware of the diversity of our audience and pay attention to the need and feedbacks of audience.

Secondly, in terms of the ability to use new media to gather and spread news, results from the survey indicate that as many as 80.7% of respondents use new media every day, 26.1% of respondents get news and information from Weibo, 29.0% of them obtain information from Wechat, 14.8% of respondents obtain information from blogs, 28.4% of respondents get news from some news apps; 22.8% of respondents obtain information from the audience, 41% from official news channels, and 25.5% from other media channels. There’s no doubt that the ability to handle new media has been a key factor for journalists to promote new media literacy, access to new media has enabled many journalists to accumulate their editions online.

Apart from the encouraging findings we have gained, there are some less favorable findings waiting for the attention. According to the study, there are only 49.7% of respondents do not agree with “reporters can write whatever they are interested in “, only 43.4% of respondents don’t agree with “reporters can writer whatever the audience like “, only 59.7% of respondents do not agree with “the reporter can expose the privacy of others”, only 33.1% of respondents do not agree with “journalists can make up the news reasonably to attract audiences’ attention”.

The results from these answers of the survey were a little bit frustrated since not all the journalists could establish new media literacy and promote independent and fair news. Promoting critical media literacy is essential to deal with millions of messages in the digital age.

All in all, the results of our survey indicate that the majority of journalists are equipped with the essential ability of new media literacy and aware of the importance of new media literacy. However, there are still many journalists who are not familiar with using online media tools and couldn’t meet the need to adapt to the changes. This suggests that more work needs to be done to educate journalists to develop their media literacy. Make media literacy course enter mainstream journalism education is a good way to do.

The changes in journalism are frequently and quickly nowadays, in order to fit into the new media environment, journalists have a greater need for media literacy in the digital age, they have to adapt quickly to the emerging new media paradigm.

Journalists are facing a survive-or-die battle. Fortunately, evidence from the survey shows that journalism is still alive and transforming well in its own way, but only if we continue to focus on the journalists’ new media literacy and educate them in a right way.

Liu Jing

Associate Professor, South China Normal University

刘兢

Liu Jing: A Research on the Evaluation Index System of Chinese Journalists’ Media Literacy

Tags: China, journalist;media literacy;Evaluation Index System

Media literacy level can be measured through qualitative and quantitative research. In order to properly investigate media literacy ability of Chinese journalists at the age of social media, a scientific and objective evaluation system is very important. For this reason, the research group from South China Normal University tried to construct an evaluation index system of Chinese journalists’ media literacy. The study is presented as follows.

(Thematic authors of this index:

Zhang Xuebo, Professor, South China Normal University, China.

Li Surui, Graduate student, South China Normal University, China.)

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Step 1: Design a Questionnaire

The first-level index of journalists’ new media literacy is assumed as five indicators: media cognitions, media emotions, media skills, and media aesthetics and media ethics, and then 19 secondary indicators have been developed. Based on those 5 indicators and 19 secondary indicators, we designed a questionnaire on Chinese Journalist’ media literacy evaluation system, and sent it to university professors of Journalism and Communication in China, media experts by e-mail. The number of questionnaires is 72, receiving a total of 32 questionnaires, and the invalid questionnaire is 0, the questionnaire was 100% effective.

Firstly, the questionnaire scales Cronbach α coefficient (Cronbach Alpha) is 0.744, significantly higher than the 0.7 level. The results indicate that the internal consistency of this scale is an affirmative.

Secondly, the questionnaire validity analysis would be used KMO method. The results indicate that KMO is 0.515, greater than 0.5, indicating that the construct validity of the scale is acceptable. So, we can do the factor analysis. In addition, Bartlett’s test of sphericity is 161.998, df 91, Sig. 0.000, it represent that the groups have a common correlation matrix factors. The results also indicate that the questionnaire is suitable for doing factor analysis

Thirdly, principal component analysis was made to extract relevant factors from the samples. The outputs show that the front five factors was 71.669% cumulative contribution, more than 70%, to explain most of the information index. The extracted five main components establish the original factor loading matrix, and at the same time we delete some incompatible indications. Through the second factor analysis and cluster analysis testing, the results are generally the same as the first factor analysis, The final Media Literacy Evaluation System includes 5 indicators and 13 secondary indicators.

Step 2: Construct the index of Chinese journalist’ media literacy evaluation system

With questionnaires filled by experts to re-assign the various indicators, the researchers constructed the core first-level and second-level index of the media literacy evaluation system. The first-level index have 5 indicators, the second-level index have 13 indicators. The first-level indicators include media emotions, media skills, media selections, media uses and media recognitions. By factor contribution rate and the accumulated contribution rate, we can calculate index weight of each level indicator. The media literacy evaluation index system and weight of journalist in the following table.

First Grade indexes Proportion Secondary indexes Explain of The Index proportion
Media Emotion 30% Media organization cognition The understanding of media organization structure, financial situation, the competition among the various media, the commercial and professional of media organization. 5
Aesthetics Aesthetics is able to master some media aesthetic, to identify and evaluate the standard of beauty, to form the correct aesthetic concept. 4
Expressing beauty media will be presented the reality in the form of aesthetic, in order to reduce significantly media persuade tendency in the process of news communication. 1
Appreciate aesthetic it is to use different skills, language and aesthetic effect in the different media products to analyzed 2
Pass the beauty To know the communication aesthetic in media production process, pay attention to the connotation of news information. 3
Media skill 19% Media creation skills the professional standards and the professional literacy, focus on the concrete operating level 1
Media communication skills with the help of media platform, according to the audience demand, communicate the news timely and effectively, to maximize the communication effect skills. 2
Media selection 18% Media language cognition a kind of cognition of visual language, auditory language and other communication symbols. 2
Media audience cognition an whole judgement about the audiences, like audience psychology, audience preference, audience feedback. 1
Media usage 17% Media usage cognition To obtain information from the media and have the skill which the usage of media, the production technology and process of media product, especially the basic cogniton and use of knowledge in the development of new media. 1
Media information production cognition It is how to product the news information with connotation, reproduce the social reality and passed to the public. 2

Media identification

16%

Media demand intention

It contains the demand for media text, the demand for using different media forms, the demand to adapt the audience’s personalization custom news, after the demand for media, we can find if the journalist have the media contact or not.

2

Media contact consciousness

It is not only means the contact of traditional editorial business, but also the contact with voice , video and mobile media in all media ear. The media contact in mobile internet era in an important evaluation criterion of journalist media literacy ability.

1

Conclusion

In the end, we can construct an evaluation index system for journalists’ media literacy abilities in the new media environment, and provide relevant decision-making reference for the education sectors, media agencies, community groups, government decision-making departments. However, the research also has some shortcomings.

  1. This research on the evaluation index system of Chinese journalists’ media literacy only stays in the descriptive level.
  2. To make the data more representatives, the samples need to be enlarged. In addition, the research has only divided two level indexes. In the further research, we may divide more detailed index.

This article is originally composed by Prof. Liu Jing

Associate Professor, South China Normal University

刘兢