Towards learner performance evaluation in iVR learning environments using eye-tracking and Machine-learning


  • Ana Serrano-Mamolar Universidad de Burgos
  • Ines Miguel-Alonso Universidad de Burgos
  • David Checa Universidad de Burgos
  • Carlos Pardo-Aguilar Universidad de Burgos


Virtual environment, game-based learning, machinelearning, eye-tracking, feature extraction, neuroeducation.


At present, the use of eye-tracking data in immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) learning environments is set to become a
powerful tool for maximizing learning outcomes, due to the low-intrusiveness of eye-tracking technology and its integration
in commercial iVR Head Mounted Displays. However, the most suitable technologies for data processing should first
be identified before their use in learning environments can be generalized. In this research, the use of machine-learning
techniques is proposed for that purpose, evaluating their capabilities to classify the quality of the learning environment and
to predict user learning performance. To do so, an iVR learning experience simulating the operation of a bridge crane
was developed. Through this experience, the performance of 63 students was evaluated, both under optimum learning
conditions and under stressful conditions. The final dataset included 25 features, mostly temporal series, with a dataset size
of up to 50M data points. The results showed that different classifiers (KNN, SVM and Random Forest) provided the
highest accuracy when predicting learning performance variations, while the accuracy of user learning performance was
still far from optimized, opening a new line of future research. This study has the objective of serving as a baseline for future
improvements to model accuracy using complex machine-learning techniques.



How to Cite

Serrano-Mamolar, A., Miguel-Alonso, I., Checa, D., & Pardo-Aguilar, C. (2023). Towards learner performance evaluation in iVR learning environments using eye-tracking and Machine-learning. Comunicar, 31(76), 9–20. Retrieved from