Even if they don't say it to you, it hurts too: Internalized homonegativity in LGBTQ+ cyberbullying among adolescents


  • Mónica Ojeda Universidad de Sevilla
  • Esperanza Espino Universidad de Sevilla
  • Paz Elipe Universidad de Jaén
  • Rosario Del-Rey Universidad de Sevilla


Cybervictimisation, gender identity, sexual orientation, gender expression, homonegativity, adolescents


Cyberbullying is a problem that is more prevalent and serious among LGBTQ+ people. Previous research has mostly analysed sexual orientation and homophobic cyberaggression. Hence, becomes necessary to consider sex-gender diversity as a whole and aggressions of a general nature. Moreover, existing prejudices underline the need to consider homonegativity as a key variable in this type of cyberviolence. This sequential mixed study explores, in a first qualitative step with focus groups, perceptions on the characterisation of LGBTQ+ cyberbullying and, in a second quantitative step, cybervictimisation in terms of affective-sexual, bodily and gender diversity, and the possible moderating role of internalised homonegativity. The qualitative study involved 175 students and the quantitative study involved 1,971 students aged 12-18 from secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). Qualitative results identified valuable dimensions of cyberbullying, such as collective LGBTQ+ cybervictimisation. Quantitative results revealed differences in collective LGBTQ+ cybervictimisation according to sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. It also highlights the moderation of internalised homonegativity, with those at a low level being more sensitive to collective LGBTQ+ cyberaggression. LGBTQ+ cyberbullying is made visible as a construct that includes various types of aggressions aimed at the whole spectrum of affective-sexual diversity and emphasises the need to address internalised homonegativity in psychoeducational interventions involving all students



How to Cite

Ojeda, M., Espino, E., Elipe, P., & Del-Rey, R. (2023). Even if they don’t say it to you, it hurts too: Internalized homonegativity in LGBTQ+ cyberbullying among adolescents. Comunicar, 31(75), 21–35. Retrieved from https://www.revistacomunicar.com/ojs/index.php/comunicar/article/view/115325