Palavras chave

Neuroeducação, padrões de aprendizagem, rastreamento ocular, aprendizagem personalizada, análise de cluster, tecnologia educacional

Resumo

Os avanços neurotecnológicos estão possibilitando novos conhecimentos em contextos educacionais sobre a forma como cada aluno aprende. No entanto, sua aplicação apresenta desafios para o ensino em contextos naturais. Este artigo apresenta um exemplo de uso e aplicabilidade da tecnologia “eye tracking” no Ensino Superior. Trabalhamos com uma amostra de 20 estudantes de três universidades (Burgos e Valladolid na Espanha e Miño em Portugal). Os objetivos foram: 1) verificar se houve diferenças significativas nos indicadores de esforço cognitivo (FC, FD, SC, PD, VC) encontrados com a tecnologia de “eye tracking” entre alunos com e sem conhecimento prévio; 2) verificar se houve clusters de padrões de comportamento de aprendizagem entre os alunos; 3) analisar diferenças na visualização de padrões de comportamento. Um projeto quase-experimental sem um grupo de controle e um projeto descritivo foram usados. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas entre os alunos com e sem conhecimento prévio sobre os resultados da aprendizagem. Além disso, dois tipos de clusters foram encontrados nos indicadores de esforço cognitivo. Por fim, foi realizada uma análise comparativa dos padrões de comportamento de aprendizagem dos alunos do cluster 1 vs. cluster 2. O uso da tecnologia “eye tracking” possibilitou o registro de um grande volume de dados referentes ao processo de aprendizagem. No entanto, atualmente seu uso em contextos educacionais naturais exige que os professores tenham conhecimentos tecnológicos e de mineração de dados.

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Recebido: 10-12-2022

Revisado: 11-01-2023

Aceite: 23-02-2023

OnlineFirst: 30-05-2023

Data de publicação: 01-07-2023

Tempo de revisão do artigo: 32 dias | Tempo médio de revisão do número 76: -6 dias

Tempo de aceitação do artigo: 75 dias | Tempo médio de aceitação do número 76: 72 dias

Tempo de edição da pré-impressão: 157 dias | Tempo médio de edição pré-impressão do número 76: 154 dias

Tempo de processamento do artigo: 202 dias | Tempo médio de processamento do número 76: 199 dias

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Sáiz-Manzanares, M., Marticorena-Sánchez, R., Martín-Antón, L., Almeida, L., & Carbonero-Martín, M. (2023). Application and challenges of eye tracking technology in Higher Education. [Aplicación y retos de la tecnología de movimiento ocular en Educación Superior]. Comunicar, 76, 35-46. https://doi.org/10.3916/C76-2023-03

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