Palavras chave

Imigrantes, xenofobia, meios de comunicação, ameaça, competência, insegurança, enquadramento midiático

Resumo

Com a transformação da Espanha há algumas décadas em país de imigração, a sociedade experimentou uma importante mudança configurando um espaço social caracterizado, cada vez mais, pela diversidade cultural, étnica e religiosa. Neste novo cenário, é de grande interesse indagar sobre que valor tem tal diversidade na sociedade espanhola. São dois os objetivos deste artigo. De um lado, conhecer a opinião dos espanhóis sobre a imigração entre 1996 e 2007. E, de outro, comprovar o papel dos meios de comunicação na construção dessa opinião. Para o primeiro objetivo foi formulado um índice de sentimento anti-imigrante, a partir dos dados coletados pela pesquisa nacional sobre opiniões e atitudes sobre a imigração, publicada, anualmente pelo ASEP (banco de dados de opinião pública). Para o segundo, são analisados, utilizando a teoria da “Agenda Setting”, as notícias publicadas pelos jornais “El País” e “El Mundo” sobre imigração. Os resultados mostram que o sentimento negativo em relação ao grupo estrangeiro sofre aumento com o passar do tempo. As principais variáveis que explicam essa tendência são: o sentimento de ameaça –populacional e de identidade–, competição pelos recursos e decisões políticas no processo de integração- regularização. Da análise da mídia resultaram seis enquadramentos, sendo que os principais fazem referência à irregularidade do fenômeno, à vinculação imigração e delinquência e às políticas de integração social. Assim, ressalta-se o papel dos meios de comunicação na criação da opinião.

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Checa-Olmos, J., & Arjona-Garrido, . (2011). Spaniards’ perspective of immigration. The role of the media. [Españoles ante la inmigración: El papel de los medios de comunicación]. Comunicar, 37, 141-149. https://doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-03-06

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