Keywords

Cyberostracism, social exclusion, Ostracism Online, social networking sites, social anxiety, emotions

Abstract

This study focuses on the effect of cyberostracism on social networking sites. Based on the temporal need-threat model of ostracism, we examined a) reflexive reactions, specifically worsened mood and threats to the four fundamental needs (i.e., belongingness, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control), and b) reflective reactions, in the form of prosocial, antisocial, and avoidance behavior. We also focused on the role of social anxiety. Using the experimental tool Ostracism Online, we conducted an online experiment to manipulate ostracism, measure self-reported reflexive reactions, and measure reflective reactions in a newly developed cooperative financial game. The participants were 196 young Czech adults (age 18-30; 62% women). T-tests showed worsened mood and higher threat connected to all four of the fundamental needs in the reflexive stage in ostracized participants. Regression models showed that social anxiety had a small effect on reflexive reactions, but it did not moderate the effect of ostracism. The type of threatened need and social anxiety did not predict a reflective reaction. The only significant predictor of antisocial response was experienced ostracism. Even a mild form of ostracism such as the lack of reactions by strangers to a shared post can lead to negative emotional and behavioral consequences.

View infography

References

Ayduk, Ö., Gyurak, A., & Luerssen, A. (2008). Individual differences in the rejection – aggression link in the hot sauce paradigm: The case of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 775-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2007.07.004

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Burrow, A.L., & Rainone, N. (2017). How many likes did I get? Purpose moderates links between positive social media feedback and self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 232-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.005

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Chester, D.S., & DeWall, C.N. (2016). Sound the alarm: The effect of narcissism on retaliatory aggression is moderated by dACC reactivity to rejection. Journal of Personality, 84(3), 361-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12164

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Donate, A.P.G., Marques, L.M., Lapenta, O.M., Asthana, M.K., Amodio, D., & Boggio, P.S. (2017). Ostracism via virtual chat room—Effects on basic needs, anger and pain. PLoS ONE, 12(9), e0184215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184215

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Eisenberger, N.I., Lieberman, M.D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302(5643), 290-292. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089134

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hartgerink, C.H.J., van Beest I., Wicherts J.M., & Williams K.D. (2015). The ordinal effects of ostracism: A meta-analysis of 120 Cyberball studies. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0127002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127002

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayes, R.A., Carr, C.T., & Wohn, D.Y. (2016). One click, many meanings: Interpreting paralinguistic digital affordances in social media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 60(1), 171-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2015.1127248

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hayes, R.A., Wesselmann, E.D., & Carr, C.T. (2018). When nobody “Likes” you: Perceived ostracism through paralinguistic digital affordances within social media. Social Media + Society, 4(3), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305118800309

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Kowalski, R.M., Giumetti, G.W., Schroeder, A.N., & Lattanner, M.R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073-1137. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035618

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Kupper, N., & Denollet, J. (2012). Social anxiety in the general population: Introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(1-2), 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.014

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

McCord, B., Rodebaugh, T.L., & Levinson, C.A. (2014). Facebook: Social uses and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.020

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Miller, R.S. (2009). Social anxiousness, shyness, and embarrassability. In M.R. Leary, & R.H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 176-191). The Guilford Press. https://bit.ly/3myP2k4

Link Google Scholar

Peduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford, T.R., & Feinstein, A.R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(12), 1373-1379. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00236-3

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Reich, S., Schneider, F.M., & Heling, L. (2018). Zero Likes - Symbolic interactions and need satisfaction online. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 97-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.10.043

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ren, D., Wesselmann, E.D., & Williams, K.D. (2018). Hurt people hurt people: Ostracism and aggression. Current Opinion in Psychology, 19, 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.026

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400876136

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ryan, T., Allen, K.A., Gray, D.L., & McInerney, D.M. (2017). How social are social media? A review of online social behaviour and connectedness. Journal of Relationships Research, 8, e8. https://doi.org/10.1017/jrr.2017.13

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Schneider, F.M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M.J., Hopp, F.R., Reich, S., & Vorderer, P. (2017). Social media ostracism: The effects of being excluded online. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.052

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Scissors, L., Burke, M., & Wengrovitz, S. (2016). What's in a Like? Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook. In CSCW '16: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 1501-1510). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2818048.2820066

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tobin, S.J., McDermott, S., & French, L. (2018). The role of group size in reactions to ostracism and inclusion. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(7), 1014-1033. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430217702723

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tobin, S.J., Vanman, E.J., Verreynne, M., & Saeri, A.K. (2015). Threats to belonging on Facebook: Lurking and ostracism. Social Influence, 10(1), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/15534510.2014.893924

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Twenge, J.M. (2005). When does social rejection lead to aggression? The influences of situations, narcissism, emotion, and replenishing connections. In K.D. Williams, J.P. Forgas, & W. von-Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 202-212). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203942888

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Twenge, J.M., & Campbell, W.K. (2003). Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve? Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(2), 261-272. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202239051

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Valkenburg, P.M., & Peter, J. (2007). Preadolescents' and adolescents' online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 267-277. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.267

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

van-de-Mortel, T.F. (2008). Faking it: Social desirability response bias in self-report research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(4), 40-48. https://bit.ly/2JfgZyP

Link Google Scholar

Wesselmann, E.D., Ren, D., & Williams, K.D. (2015). Motivations for responses to ostracism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 40. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00040

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Williams, K.D. (2009). Ostracism: A temporal need-threat model. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 275-314). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)00406-1

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Williams, K.D., & Wesselmann, E.D. (2011). The link between ostracism and aggression. In J.P. Forgas, A.W. Kruglanski, & K.D. Williams (Eds.), The psychology of social conflict and aggression (pp. 37-51). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203803813

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Williams, K.D., Cheung, C.K.T., & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 748-762. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.748

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wohn, D.Y., Carr, C.T., Hayes, R.A. (2016). How affective is a “Like”? The effect of paralinguistic digital affordances on perceived social support. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(9), 562-566. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2016.0162

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wolf, W., Levordashka, A., Ruff, J.R., Kraaijeveld, S., Lueckmann, J.M., & Williams, K.D. (2015). Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm. Behavioral Research Methods, 47(2), 361-373. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0475-x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Zadro, L., Boland, C., & Richardson, R. (2006). How long does it last? The persistence of the effects of ostracism in the socially anxious. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 692-697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2005.10.007

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Technical information

Received: 30-09-2020

Revised: 31-10-2020

Accepted: 16-11-2020

OnlineFirst: 15-01-2021

Publication date: 01-04-2021

Article revision time: 31 days | Average time revision issue 67: 36 days

Article acceptance time: 47 days | Average time of acceptance issue 67: 67 days

Preprint editing time: 138 days | Average editing time preprint issue 67: 159 days

Article editing time: 183 days | Average editing time issue 67: 204 days

Metrics

Metrics of this article

Views: 46633

Abstract readings: 40884

PDF downloads: 5749

Full metrics of Comunicar 67

Views: 418003

Abstract readings: 365310

PDF downloads: 52693

Cited by

Cites in Web of Science

Shi, LY; Li, H; (...); Song, LL. Does Cyberostracism Reduce Prosocial Behaviors? The Protective Role of Psychological Resilience Apr 2022, 2000.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074388

Quarmley, M; Feldman, J; (...); Jarcho, JM. Testing effects of social rejection on aggressive and prosocial behavior: A meta-analysis AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, 2022.

https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.22026

Pena, MFVH and Tellez, JM. Social networks as a tool of collaborative learning in architectural SOPHIA-EDUCACION, 2022.

https://doi.org/10.18634/sophiaj.18v.2i.1170

Salcines-Talledo, I; Ramirez-Garcia, A and Gonzalez-Fernandez, N. Knowledge and behavior of Spanish parents in Social Networks in relation to children. Design and application of a questionnaire DIGITAL EDUCATION REVIEW, 2022.

Link Google Scholar

Ozcan, E and Simsek, B. SOCIAL BUTTONS AND PEER-TO-PEER SECOND-HAND MARKETPLACE INTERACTIVITY ON LETGO COMMUNICATION TODAY, 2022.

Link Google Scholar

Reich, S; Schneider, FM and Zwillich, B. No Likes - no control? examining the role of coping deprivation and social anxiety in social media ostracism Reich, S; Schneider, FM and Zwillich, B BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2022.2161938

Thomas, MF; Binder, A and Matthes, J. The psychological influence of dating app matches: The more matches the merrier? NEW MEDIA & SOCIETY, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448231161598

Carcelen-Garcia, S; Ventisca, MDB and Galmes-Cerezo, M. Young People's Perception of the Danger of Risky Online Activities: Behaviours, Emotions and Attitudes Associated with Their Digital Vulnerability SOCIAL SCIENCES-BASEL, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030164

Boykina, EE. Social Ostracism and Minors? Antisocial Behavior PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2023130109

Cites in Scopus

Shi, L., Li, H., Huang, L., Hou, Y., Song, L. . Does Cyberostracism Reduce Prosocial Behaviors? The Protective Role of Psychological Resilience), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, .

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074388

Quarmley, M., Feldman, J., Grossman, H., (...), Moyer, A., Jarcho, J.M. . Testing effects of social rejection on aggressive and prosocial behavior: A meta-analysis), Aggressive Behavior, .

https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.22026

Özcan, Erhan; Şimşek, Burcu. SOCIAL BUTTONS AND PEER-TO-PEER SECOND-HAND MARKETPLACE INTERACTIVITY ON LETGO), Communication Today, .

Link Google Scholar

Salcines-Talledo, I., Ramírez-García, A., González-Fernández, N. . Knowledge and behavior of Spanish parents in Social Networks in relation to children. Design and application of a questionnaire), Digital Education Review, .

https://doi.org/10.1344/DER.2022.41.158-175

Reich, S., Schneider, F.M., Zwillich, B.. No Likes–no control? examining the role of coping deprivation and social anxiety in social media ostracism ), Behaviour and Information Technology, .

https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2022.2161938

Carcelén-García, S., Díaz-Bustamante Ventisca, M., Galmes-Cerezo, M.. Young People’s Perception of the Danger of Risky Online Activities: Behaviours, Emotions and Attitudes Associated with Their Digital Vulnerability), Social Sciences, .

https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030164

Thomas, M.F., Binder, A., Matthes, J.. The psychological influence of dating app matches: The more matches the merrier?), New Media and Society, .

https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448231161598

Palza-Monroy, A., García-Tejada, J.E., Mamani-Calcina, J., (...), Condori-Mamani, C.E., Bautista, H.M.. Cyberbullying in College Adolescents a Systematic Review), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, .

Link Google Scholar

Skogen, J.C., Andersen, A.I.O., Finserås, T.R., (...), Brunborg, G.S., Hjetland, G.J.. Commonly reported negative experiences on social media are associated with poor mental health and well-being among adolescents: results from the “LifeOnSoMe”-study), Frontiers in Public Health, .

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1192788

Boykina, E.E.. Social Ostracism and Minors’ Antisocial Behavior), Psychology and Law, .

https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2023130109

Wei, X., Chu, X., Wang, H., (...), Liu, C., Lei, L.. Does positive coping style alleviate anxiety symptoms after appearing problematic smartphone use for generation Z adolescents? The mediating role of state core self-evaluation ), Current Psychology, .

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-04776-x

Cites in Google Scholar

Sillence, E., Saxton, T. K., & Pollet, T. (2021). Facebook Social Use and Anxiety: A Replication Attempt. Human Communication & Technology, 2(1), 19-36.

https://journals.ku.edu/hct/article/view/14847

Ortiz Marcos, J. M. (2021). El ciberbullying por razones de interculturalidad en estudiantes de educación secundaria obligatoria de ciudades fronterizas.

https://digibug.ugr.es/handle/10481/71160

Stenson, A. (2021). The development and validation of a new instrument to assess the role of social media in college adjustment for undergraduate students.

https://wlv.openrepository.com/handle/2436/624390

Cárdenas Astudillo, D. A., & Coello Moscoso, M. E. (2022). Efectos psicológicos causados por el uso de redes sociales en personas de 15 a 45 años (Bachelor's thesis, Universidad del Azuay).

https://dspace.uazuay.edu.ec/handle/datos/11571

Sillence, E., Saxton, T. K., & Pollet, T. V. review, cite at own risk. This version: 21-6-2021.

...

Quarmley, M., Feldman, J., Grossman, H., Clarkson, T., Moyer, A., & Jarcho, J. M. (2022). Testing effects of social rejection on aggressive and prosocial behavior: A meta‐analysis. Aggressive behavior.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ab.22026

Shi, L., Li, H., Huang, L., Hou, Y., & Song, L. (2022). Does cyberostracism reduce prosocial behaviors? The protective role of psychological resilience. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(7), 4388.

https://www.mdpi.com/1575728

Özcan, E. (2014). Faculty of Communication Yozgat Bozok University 661 00 Yozgat Turkey. Culture, 8(1), 33-46.

https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=1040714

Boykina, E. E. (2022). Modern faces of social ostracism: ghosting, orbiting, phubbing, cancel culture. Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 11(2), 131-140.

https://editorial.mgppu.ru/jmfp/article/view/871

Özcan, E., & ŞIMŞEK, B. (2022). SOCIAL BUTTONS AND PEER-TO-PEER SECOND-HAND MARKETPLACE INTERACTIVITY ON LETGO. Communication Today, 13(1).

...

Sillence, E., Saxton, T., & Pollet, T. V. (2019). Facebook: Social Uses and Anxiety-A Replication Attempt.

https://psyarxiv.com/bvgxy/

Бойкина, Е. Э. (2022). Современные лики социального остракизма: гостинг, орбитинг, фаббинг, культура отмены. Современная зарубежная психология, 11(2), 131-140.

https://psyjournals.ru/jmfp/2022/n2/Boykina_full.shtml

Talledo, I. S., García, A. R., & González-Fernández, N. (2022). Conocimiento y comportamiento de progenitores españoles en Redes Sociales en relación a los menores. Diseño y aplicación de un cuestionario. Digital Education Review, (41), 158-175.

https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=8526070

Villafuerte Galarza, V. L. (2022). Formas de discriminación en redes sociales (Bachelor's thesis).

https://dspace.ups.edu.ec/handle/123456789/22846

Download

Alternative metrics

How to cite

Galbava, S., Machackova, H., & Dedkova, L. (2021). Cyberostracism: Emotional and behavioral consequences in social media interactions. [Ciberostracismo: Consecuencias emocionales y conductuales en las interacciones en redes sociales]. Comunicar, 67, 9-20. https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-01

Share

           

Oxbridge Publishing House

4 White House Way

B91 1SE Sollihul United Kingdom

Administration

Editorial office

Creative Commons

This website uses cookies to obtain statistical data on the navigation of its users. If you continue to browse we consider that you accept its use. +info X