Palabras clave

Redes sociales, desinformación, desorden informativo, competencia mediática, habilidades informativas, creadores

Resumen

La desinformación en las redes sociales es un problema al que se enfrenta nuestra sociedad. La experiencia de uso no garantiza el éxito para identificar la información falsa. El estudio pretende determinar si un rol activo en los medios sociales influye en las competencias informacionales. Para ello se diseñó una encuesta que se aplicó a 756 jóvenes entre 16 y 26 años de diversos niveles educativos. Los resultados muestran un perfil de usuarios «creadores» que participan en la generación de contenidos propios y en compartir sus recomendaciones abiertamente, frente a otro, los «espectadores», centrados en el entretenimiento y la interacción. El perfil creador es la variable que más contribuye a denunciar noticias falsas en las redes sociales. A la hora de contrastar la información, el nivel educativo es el aspecto más relevante, aunque los resultados académicos y los usuarios creadores también suponen una aportación significativa. Una mayor confianza en las fuentes presentes en las redes sociales distingue al perfil activo, mientras que la desconfianza está asociada con los espectadores. Desde la educación mediática se recomienda emprender acciones destinadas a recuperar la confianza en los medios sociales para que puedan ser utilizados de modo crítico, favoreciendo un uso activo y no reactivo de los mismos.

Ver infografía

Referencias

Ahmed, S. (2021). Who inadvertently shares deepfakes? Analyzing the role of political interest, cognitive ability, and social network size. Telematics and Informatics, 57, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2020.101508

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ala-Mutka, K. (2011). Mapping digital competence: Towards a conceptual understanding. JRC-IPTS European Commission. https://bit.ly/3trbl1c

Link Google Scholar

Allcott, H., Gentzkow, M., & Yu, C. (2019). Trends in the diffusion of misinformation on social media. Research and Politics, 6(2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168019848554

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Andersen, J., & Søe, S.O. (2020). Communicative actions we live by: The problem with fact-checking, tagging or flagging fake news – the case of Facebook. European Journal of Communication, 35(2), 126-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323119894489

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ardèvol-Abreu, A., Delponti, P., & Rodríguez-Wangüemert, C. (2020). Intentional or inadvertent fake news sharing? Fact-checking warnings and users’ interaction with social media content. Profesional de la Información, 29(5), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.sep.07

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Area-Moreira, M., & Pessoa, T. (2012). From solid to liquid: New literacies to the cultural changes of Web 2.0. [De lo sólido a lo líquido: Las nuevas alfabetizaciones ante los cambios culturales de la Web 2.0]. Comunicar, 38, 13-20. https://doi.org/10.3916/C38-2012-02-01

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Avram, M., Micallef, N., Patil, S., & Menczer, F. (2020). Exposure to social engagement metrics increases vulnerability to misinformation. Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.37016/mr-2020-033

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Babaei, M., Kulshrestha, J., Chakraborty, A., Redmiles, E.M., Cha, M., & Gummadi, K.P. (2021). Analyzing biases in perception of truth in news stories and their implications for fact checking. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSS.2021.3096038

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ballesteros, J.C., & Picazo, L. (2018). Las TIC y su influencia en la socialización de adolescentes. Fundación de Ayuda Contra la Drogadicción (FAD). https://bit.ly/32iWuel

Link Google Scholar

Bernal-Triviño, A.I. (2015). Tecnología, redes sociales, política y periodismo. ¿Pluralidad informativa o efecto bumerán? Cuadernos.Info, 36, 191-205. https://doi.org/10.7764/cdi.36.647

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Boni, A., Belda-Miquel, S., & Calabuig, C. (2020). Critical global citizenship education. Síntesis. https://bit.ly/3ySn0qI

Link Google Scholar

Bradshaw, S., & Howard P.N. (2019). The global disinformation order: 2019 Global inventory of organized social media manipulation. Working Paper 3. University of Oxford. https://bit.ly/3yU5baT

Link Google Scholar

Buckingham, D. (2019). Teaching media in a ‘post-truth’ age: Fake news, media bias and the challenge for media/digital literacy education. Cultura y Educación, 31(2), 213-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2019.1603814

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Burguet-i-Arfelis, M., & Buxarrais, M.R. (2012). Competencias ético-digitales transversalidad y paradojas. In L. García-Aretio (Ed.), Sociedad del conocimiento y educación (pp. 221-226). https://bit.ly/3pm5pEr

Link Google Scholar

Carretero, G.S., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use. Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2760/38842

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Chan, M., Pui, S., Jones, C.R., Hall-Jamieson, K., & Albarracín, D. (2017). Debunking: A meta-analysis of the psychological efficacy of messages countering misinformation. Psychological Science, 28(11), 1531-1546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617714579

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

De-Frutos-Torres, B., Pastor-Rodríguez, A., & Martín-García, N. (2021). Consumo de las plataformas sociales en Internet y escepticismo a la publicidad. Profesional de la información, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.04

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

De-keersmaecker, J., & Roets, A. (2017). ‘Fake news’: Incorrect, but hard to correct. The role of cognitive ability on the impact of false information on social impressions. Intelligence, 65, 107-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2017.10.005

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Dechêne, A., Stahl, C., Hansen, J., & Wänke, M. (2010). The truth about the truth: A meta-analytic review of the truth effect. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 238-257. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352251

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Eurobarometer (Ed.) (2018). Fake news and disinformation online. https://doi.org/10.2759/559993

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

European Commission (Ed.) (2018). A multidimensional approach to disinformation. Report of the Independent High level group on fake news and online Disinformation. Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2759/0156

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Figueira, J., & Santos, S. (2019). Perceptions about fake news in Portuguese higher education students: An analysis of consumption and attitudes. Profesional de La Informacion, 28(3), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.may.15

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

García-Valcárcel, A. (2016). Las competencias digitales en el ámbito educativo. Gredos. https://bit.ly/3Fqsw6n

Link Google Scholar

García-Valcárcel, A., & Martín-Del-Pozo, M. (2015). Análisis de las competencias digitales de los graduados en titulaciones de Maestro. RELATEC,15(2), 155-168. https://doi.org/10.17398/1695-288X.15.2.155

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Golob, T., Makarovi?, M., & Rek, M. (2021). Meta-reflexivity for resilience against disinformation. [Meta-reflexividad para la resiliencia contra la desinformación]. Comunicar, 66, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-09Guerrero-Pico, M., Masanet M.J., & Scolari, C.A. (2019). Toward a typology of young produsers: Teenagers’ transmedia skills, media production, and narrative and aesthetic appreciation. New Media & Society, 21(2), 336-353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818796470

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hargittai, E., & Hinnant, A. (2008). Digital inequality: Differences in young adults' use of the Internet. Communication Research, 35(5), 602-621. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650208321782

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hasher, L., Goldstein, D., & Toppino, T. (1977). Frequency and the conference of referential validity. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16(1), 107-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(77)80012-1

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Herrero-Diz, P., Conde-Jiménez, J., Tapia-Frade, A., & Varona-Aramburu, D. (2019). The credibility of online news: An evaluation of the information by university students.La credibilidad de las noticias en Internet: Una evaluación de la información por estudiantes universitarios. Cultura y Educacion, 31(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2019.1601937

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Howard, P.N., Neudert, L.M., & Prakash, N. (2021). Digital misinformation / disinformation and children. UNICEF. https://bit.ly/3w3yY1j

Link Google Scholar

Jenkins H., & Carpentier N. (2013). Theorizing participatory intensities: A conversation about participation and politics. Convergence, 19(3), 265-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856513482090

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21stCentury. White Paper. MacArthur Foundation. https://bit.ly/3EjC1Tz

Link Google Scholar

Jenkins, H., Shresthova, S., Gamber-Thompson, L., Kligler-Vilenchik, N., & Zimmerman, A. (2016). By any media necessary: The new youth activism. New York University Press. https://doi.org/10.18574/9781479829712-002

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Jones-Jang, S.M., Mortensen, T., & Liu, J. (2021). Does media literacy help identification of fake news? Information literacy helps, but other literacies don’t. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 371-388. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219869406

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Kim, E.M., & Yang, S. (2016). Internet literacy and digital natives’ civic engagement: Internet skill literacy or Internet information literacy? Journal of Youth Studies, 19(4), 438-456. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1083961

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U.K.H., Seifert, C.M., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012). Misinformation and its correction: Continued influence and successful debiasing. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(3), 106-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612451018

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Litt, E. (2013), Measuring users' Internet skills: A review of past assessments and a look toward the future. New Media & Society, 15(4), 612-630. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444813475424

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2010). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenegers’ use of the Internet: The role of online skills and Internet self-efficacy. New Media & Society, 12(2), 309-329. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809342697

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

López-de-Ayala, M.C., Vizcaíno-Laorga, R., & Montes-Vozmediano, M. (2020). Hábitos y actitudes de los jóvenes ante las redes sociales: Influencia del sexo, edad y clase social. Profesional de La Información, 29(6), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.nov.04

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Luo, H., Cai, M., & Cui, Y. (2021). Spread of misinformation in social networks: Analysis based on Weibo tweets. Security and Communication Networks. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7999760

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mascheroni, G., Cino, D., Mikuska, J., Lacko, D., & Smahel, D. (2020). Digital skills, risks and wellbeing among European children. Report on (f)actors that explain online acquisition, cognitive, physical, psychological and social wellbeing, and the online resilience of children and young people. ySKILLS-youth skills. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4274602

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mele, N., Lazer, D., Baum, M., Grinberg, N., Friedland, L., Joseph, K., & Mattsson, C. (2017). Combating fake news: An agenda for research and action. https://bit.ly/3KExKO7

Link Google Scholar

Mihailidis, P., & Viotty, S. (2017). Spreadable spectacle in digital culture: Civic expression, fake news, and the role of media literacies in “post-fact” society. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(4), 441-454. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764217701217

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Mønsted, B., Sapiezynski, P., Ferrara, E., & Lehmann, S. (2017). Evidence of complex contagion of information in social media: An experiment using twitter bots. PloS ONE, 12(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184148

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

OCDE (Ed.) (2016). Skills for a digital Word. OECD Publishing. https://bit.ly/3ehRFo7

Link Google Scholar

Papadopoulos, S., Bontcheva, K., Jaho, E., Lupu, M., & Castillo, C. (2016). Overview of the special issue on trust and veracity of information in social media. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 34(3), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1145/2870630

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. (2019). Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition, 188, 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Pereira, S., Moura, P., Masanet, M.J., Taddeo, G., & Tirocchi, S. (2018). Media uses and production practices: Case study with teens from Portugal, Spain and Italy. Comunicación y Sociedad, 33, 89-114. https://doi.org/10.32870/cys.v0i33.7091

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Petrucco, C., & Agostini, D. (2021). Student perceptions of fake news. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence, 11(2), 28-43. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJDLDC.2020040103

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Sánchez-García, F.J. (2021). Educar la mirada. El discurso informativo de las “fake news” en el currículo de Secundaria y Bachillerato. Contextos Educativos. Revista de Educación, 27, 153-167. https://doi.org/10.18172/con.4865

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Santamaría-Cárdaba, N., Martínez-Scott, S., & Vicente-Mariño, M. (2021). Discovering the way: Past, present and possible future lines of global citisenship education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 19(5), 687-695. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2021.1878012

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Scherer, R., Rohatgi, A., & Hatlevik, O.E. (2017). Students' profiles of ICT use: Identification, determinants, and relations to achievement in a computer and information literacy test. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 486-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.034

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Soengas-Pérez, X., López-Cepeda, A.M., & Sixto-García, J. (2019). Dieta mediática, hábitos de consumo de noticias y desinformación en los universitarios españoles. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, 1056-1070. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-201

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Taddeo, G., & Tirocchi, S. (2019). Transmedia teens: The creative transmedia skills of Italian Students. Information, Communication & Society, 24(2), 241-257. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2019.1645193

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tandoc, E.C., Lim, Z.W., & Ling, R. (2018). Defining “fake news”: A typology of scholarly definitions. Digital Journalism, 6(2), 137-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Törnberg, P. (2018). Echo chambers and viral misinformation: Modeling fake news as complex contagion. PLoS ONE, 13(9), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203958

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

UNESCO (Ed.) (2019). Marco de competencias de los docentes en materia de TIC. Versión 3. https://bit.ly/3t0R4vN

Link Google Scholar

Van-Deursen, A.J.A.M., & van-Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2014). The digital divide shifts to differences in usage. New media & Society, 16(3), 507-526. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444813487959

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Van-Dijck, J. (2009). Users like you? Theorizing agency in user-generated content. Media, Culture & Society, 31(1), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443708098245

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Vizcaíno-Laorga, R., Catalina-García, B., & López De Ayala-López, M.C. (2019). Participation and commitment of young people in the digital environment. Uses of social networks and perception of their consequences. Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social, 74, 554-572. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2019-1345

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Vosoughi, S., Roy, D., & Aral, S. (2018). The spread of true and false news online. Science, 1151, 1146-1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017). Information disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making. Council of Europe Report, 1-108. https://bit.ly/35PCjGN

Link Google Scholar

Wilson, C., Grizzie, A., Tuazon, R., Akyempong, K., & Cheung, C.K. (2011). Alfabetización mediática e informacional. Currículum para profesores. UNESCO. https://bit.ly/3ej9ovb

Link Google Scholar

Woolley S., & Howard P.H. (2018). Computational propaganda: Political parties, politicians, and political manipulation on social media. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190931407.001.0001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Ficha técnica

Métricas

Métricas de este artículo

Vistas: 10533

Lectura del abstract: 9425

Descargas del PDF: 1108

Métricas completas de Comunicar 72

Vistas: 93595

Lectura del abstract: 83144

Descargas del PDF: 10451

Citado por

Citas en Web of Science

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Citas en Scopus

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Citas en Google Scholar

Actualmente no existen citas hacia este documento

Descarga

Métricas alternativas

Cómo citar

Taddeo, G., de-Frutos-Torres, B., & Alvarado, M. (2022). Creators and spectators facing online information disorder. Effects of digital content production on information skills. [Creadores y espectadores frente al desorden informativo online. Efectos de la producción de contenidos digitales en competencias informativas]. Comunicar, 72, 9-20. https://doi.org/10.3916/C72-2022-01

Compartir

           

Apartado de Correos 527

21080 Huelva (España)

Administración

Redacción

Creative Commons

Esta web utiliza cookies para obtener datos estadísticos de la navegación de sus usuarios. Si continúas navegando consideramos que aceptas su uso. +info X