Palavras chave

Atitudes, comunidades virtuaiss, discriminação, estudos de gênero, Internet, jovens, redes sociais, sociologia

Resumo

No âmbito do projeto «I:CUD» (Internet: desmascarando a discriminação criativamente), realizado no Reino Unido, Itália, Bélgica, Romênia e Espanha, desenvolvemos uma pesquisa sobre as expressões de discriminação utilizadas pelos jovens em redes sociais (SNS). Para realizar esta pesquisa, criamos uma estratégia metodológica de detecção de conteúdos discriminatórios em 493 perfis do Facebook que permitiu encontrar 363 exemplos para análise. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi obter informações sobre os tipos de conteúdos discriminatórios e seu modo de funcionamento on-line, para facilitar a criação de ferramentas e estratégias de combate à discriminação na rede e seu uso por parte dos formadores, docentes e famílias. Como resultado, detectamos alguns padrões diferenciais entre os jovens que nos permitem afirmar a existência de uma forma feminina e outra masculina de se comportar na internet e um uso diferenciado das SNS em relação à discriminação. Os homens tendem a ter mais atividade direta (publicando e compartilhando mensagens), com conteúdos mais claramente discriminatórios e, sobretudo, centrados na discriminação a grupos étnicos e minorias culturais. As mulheres, por outro lado, tendem a usar estratégias de discriminação não diretas (reativas), com uma menor evidência de componente discriminatório. Elas, em sua maioria, direcionam as atitudes discriminatórias para a situação sociocultural e a aparência física.

Referências

Alvesson, M., & Billing, Y. (1997). Understanding Gender and Organizations. London: Sage Publications.

Link Google Scholar

Amorós, C. (1994). Feminismo: igualdad y diferencia. México: UNAM.

Link Google Scholar

Bernárdez-Rodal, A. (2006). A la búsqueda de una ‘habitación propia’: comportamiento de género en el uso de Internet y los chats en la adolescencia. Revista de Estudios de la Juventud, 73, 69-82. (http://goo.gl/8kXFfT) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Bortee, D.S. (2005). Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls. Education, Communication & Information, 5(1), 25-39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14636310500061102

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (2000). Poder, derecho y clases sociales. Bilbao: Desclée de Brouwer.

Link Google Scholar

Boyd, D. (2007). Why Youth Heart Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. Cambridge: Berkman Centre for Internet & Society at Harvard University. Research Publication 2007-16. (http://goo.gl/bTm3NK) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Bringué, X., & Sádaba, C.C. (2011). Menores y redes sociales. Foro Generaciones Interactivas. Madrid: Fundación Telefónica.

Link Google Scholar

Castells, M. (2001). Internet y la sociedad red. Lección inaugural del Programa de Doctorado sobre la sociedad de la información y el conocimiento. Barcelona: UOC. (http://goo.gl/Ga4Xs7) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Centola, D. (2015). The Social Origins of Networks and Diffusion. American Journal of Sociology, 120(5), 1295-1338. (http://goo.gl/Zhh0CT) (31-07-2015).

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Connell, R.W. (1993). Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Link Google Scholar

Connell, R.W. (2002). Gender Short Introductions. Cambridge: Polity Press, Blackwell Publishers.

Link Google Scholar

Curington, C. V., Lin K-H., & Lundquist, J. H. (2015). Positioning Multiraciality in Cyberspace: Treatment of Multiracial Daters in an Online Dating Website. American Sociological Review 80, 764-788. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122415591268

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Deaux, K., & Stewart, A. (2001). Framing Gendered Identities. In R.K. Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.

Link Google Scholar

Dugan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013). The Demography of Social Media Users 2012. (http://goo.gl/IlfeUA) (12-07-2014).

Link Google Scholar

Ellison, N.E., Stein?eld, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Bene?ts of Facebook ‘Friends’: Social Capital and College Students Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Espinar, E., & González-Río, M.J. (2009). Jóvenes en las redes sociales virtuales. Un análisis exploratorio de las diferencias de género. Feminismo/s, 14, 87-106. (http://goo.gl/5eCEXu) (30-07-2015)

Link Google Scholar

Fenstermaker, S., & West, C. (2002). Doing Gender, Doing Difference: Inequality, Power and Institutional Change. New York: Routledge.

Link Google Scholar

Fundación Pfizer (2009). La juventud y las redes sociales en Internet. Madrid: Fundación Pfizer. (https://goo.gl/3heSgn) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

García, M.C., Alonso, J., & del Hoyo, M. (2013). La participación de los jóvenes en las redes sociales: finalidad, oportunidades y gratificaciones. Anàlisi, 48, 95-110. (https://goo.gl/qpYGKn) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, B. (1997). Studying Online Social Networks. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 3(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00062.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gómez, A.G. (2010). Lexical Encoding of Gender Relations and Identities. In R.M. Jiménez-Catalán (Coord.), Gender Perspectives on Vocabulary in Foreign and Second Languages (pp. 238-263). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Link Google Scholar

Granovetter, M.S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1.360-1.380. (https://goo.gl/qhKbKs) (30-07-2015).

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Haythornthwaite, C. (2005). Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects. Information, Community & Society, 8(2), 125-147. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691180500146185

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, H. (2002). The Internet in Everyday Life: An Introduction. In C. Haythornthwaite, & B. Wellman (Ed.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 1-41). Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Huffaker, D.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2005). Gender, Identity, and Language Use in Teenage Blogs. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 10(2). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00238.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Joinson, A.N. (2003). Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour Virtual Worlds, Real Lives. Gales: Palgrave MacMillan.

Link Google Scholar

Kadushin, C. (2013). Comprender las redes sociales. Teorías, conceptos y hallazgos. Madrid: CIS.

Link Google Scholar

Lenhart, A. (2009). Adults and Social Network Websites (http://goo.gl/9rDtPq) (05-12-2013).

Link Google Scholar

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2014). Children’s Online Risks and Opportunities: Comparative Findings from EU Kids Online and Net Children Go Mobile. London: LSE. (http://goo.gl/PhuQoa) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Manago, A.M., & al. (2008). Self-presentation and Gender on MySpace. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 446-458. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.07.001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Martuccelli, D. (2002). Grammaires de l’individu. Paris: Gallimard.

Link Google Scholar

Mascheroni, G., & Ólafsson, K. (2014). Net Children go Mobile: Risks and Opportunities. Milano: Educatt.

Link Google Scholar

Quan-Haase, A., & Wellman, B. (2002). Capitalizing on the Net: Social Contact, Civic Engagement and Sense of Community. In C. Haythornthwaite, & B. Wellman (Ed.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 291-324). Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rambaran, A., Dijkstra, J.K., Munniksma, A. & Cillessen, A. (2015). The Development of Adolescents’ Friendships and Antipathies: A Longitudinal Multivariate Network Test of Balance Theory. Social Networks, 43, 162-176. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.05.003

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rubin, G. (1975). The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex. In R. Reiter (Ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women (pp. 157-210). New York: Monthly Review Press (http://goo.gl/FwEc54) (30-07-2015).

Link Google Scholar

Schneider, F., Feldmann, A., Krishnamurthy, B., & Willinger, W. (2009). Understanding Online Social Network Usage from a Network Perspective. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet, Measurement (pp. 35-48). New York: ACM. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644893.1644899

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Stefanone, M.A., & Jang, C.Y. (2007). Writing for Friends and Family: The Interpersonal Nature of Blogs. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1), 123-140. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00389.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Steffes, E.M., & Burgee, L.E. (2009). Social Ties and Online Word of Mouth. Internet Research, 19(1), 42-59. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10662240910927812

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Stern, S.R. (2004). Expressions of Identity Online: Prominent Features and Gender Differences in Adolescents’ World Wide Web Home Pages. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(2). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4800_4

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Thelwall, M. (2008). Social Networks, Gender, and Friending: An Analysis of MySpace Member Profiles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(8), 1.321-1.330. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.20835

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Tortajada, I., Araüna, N., & Martínez, I. (2013). Advertising Stereotypes and Gender Representation in Social Networking Sites. Comunicar, 41(21), 177-186. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C41-2013-17

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Urueña, A., Ferrari, A., Blanco, D., & Valdecasa, E. (2011). Las redes sociales en Internet, Observatorio Nacional de las Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Información. (http://goo.gl/jxMYnF) (05-12-2014).

Link Google Scholar

Valcárcel, A. (1994). Sexo y filosofía. Sobre la mujer y el poder. Barcelona: Anthropos.

Link Google Scholar

Valkenburg, P.M., Schouten, A.P., & Peter, J. (2005). Adolescents’ Identity Experiments on the Internet. New Media & Society, 7, 383-402. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444805052282

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wellman, B., Haase, A.Q., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment. American Behavioural Scientist, 45(3), 436-455. (http://goo.gl/oSYTZV) (30-07-2015).

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Fundref

Este trabalho não tem nenhum apoio financeiro

Crossmark

Technical information

Recebido: 20-04-2015

Revisado: 07-05-2015

Aceite: 16-07-2015

Pré-impressão: 01-11-2015

Data de publicação: 01-01-2016

Tempo de revisão do artigo: 17 dias | Tempo médio de revisão do número 46: 93 dias

Tempo de aceitação do artigo: 87 dias | Tempo médio de aceitação do número 46: 173 dias

Tempo de edição da pré-impressão: 211 dias | Tempo médio de edição pré-impressão do número 46: 298 dias

Tempo de processamento do artigo: 256 dias | Tempo médio de processamento do número 46: 343 dias

Métricas

Métricas deste artigo

Vistas: 35757

Leituras dos resumos: 23649

Descargas em PDF: 12108

Métricas completas do Comunicar 46

Vistas: 342505

Leituras dos resumos: 233539

Descargas em PDF: 108966

Citado por

Citas em Web of Science

Aksar, Iffat Ali; Firdaus, Amira Sariyati Binti; Danaee, Mehmoud;. Virtual Manifestations of Patriarchy: Digital Experience of Pakistani Women ASIAN WOMEN , 2020.

https://doi.org/10.14431/aw.2020.3.36.1.61

Di Marco, Donatella; Arenas, Alicia; Munduate, Lourdes; Hoel, Helge. Discriminatory language in the workplace: unmasking prejudices and stereotypes REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL, 2019.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2018.1540122

Restrepo Pineda, Jair Eduardo. The use of ICTs in consolidating affective-sexual life pathways of young Spanish-resident homosexual and bisexual Colombians CUADERNOS DE TRABAJO SOCIAL, 2018.

https://doi.org/10.5209/CUTS.53308

Calvo Gonzalez, Soraya; San Fabian Maroto, Jose Luis. SELFIES, YOUNG PEOPLE AND SEXUALITY IN INSTAGRAM: SELF - REPRESENTATION ON IMAGE FORMAT PIXEL-BIT- REVISTA DE MEDIOS Y EDUCACION, 2018.

https://doi.org/10.12795/pixelbit.2018.i52.12

Arauena, Nuria; Dhaenens, Frederik; Van Bauwel, Sofie. Historical, temporal and contemporary trends on gender and media INTRODUCTION CATALAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION & CULTURAL STUDIES, 2017.

https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs.9.2.177_7

Jorge, Ana; Farrugia, Lorleen. Are victims to blame? Youth, gender and moral discourse on online risk CATALAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION & CULTURAL STUDIES, 2017.

https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs.9.2.285_1

Tirado-Morueta, Ramon; Marilu Mendoza-Zambrano, Damian; Ignacio Aguaded-Gomez, Jose; Marin-Gutierrez, Isidro. Empirical study of a sequence of access to Internet use in Ecuador TELEMATICS AND INFORMATICS, 2017.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.12.012

Osuna-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Manuel Rodriguez-Osuna, Luis; Dios, Irene;. Perception of Gender-Based Violence and Sexual Harassment in University Students: Analysis of the Information Sources and Risk within a Relationship INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH , 2020.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113754

Piero, José Luis De; Narvaja, María Evangelina;. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud , 2018.

https://doi.org/10.11600/1692715x.16208

Flores, Paula; Browne, Rodrigo;. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud , 2017.

https://doi.org/10.11600/1692715x.1510804082016

Citas em Scopus

Jorge, A., Farrugia, L.. Are victims to blame? Youth, gender, moral discourse on online risk), Catalan Journal of Communication and Cultural Studies, .

https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs.9.2.285_1

Araüna, N., Dhaenens, F., Van Bauwel, S.. Historical, temporal, contemporary trends on gender, media), Catalan Journal of Communication and Cultural Studies, .

https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs.9.2.177_7

González, S.C., Maroto, J.L.S.F.. Selfies, young people, sexuality in instagram: Self - Representation on image format [Selfies, jóvenes y sexualidad en instagram: Representaciones del yo en formato imagen]), Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educacion, .

https://doi.org/10.12795/pixelbit.2018.i52.12

Di Marco, D., Arenas, A., Munduate, L., Hoel, H.. Discriminatory language in the workplace: unmasking prejudices, stereotypes / El lenguaje discriminatorio en contextos laborales: desenmascarando prejuicios y estereotipos), Revista de Psicologia Social, .

https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2018.1540122

Aksar, I.A., Firdaus, A.S.B., Danaee, M., Maqsood, H. . Virtual manifestations of patriarchy: Digital experience of Pakistani women), Asian Women, .

https://doi.org/10.14431/aw.2020.3.36.1.61

Osuna-Rodríguez, M., Rodríguez-Osuna, L.M., Dios, I., Amor, M.I. . Perception of gender-based violence and sexual harassment in university students: Analysis of the information sources and risk within a relationship), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, .

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113754

Tirado-Morueta, R., Mendoza-Zambrano, D.M., Aguaded-Gómez, J.I., Marín-Gutiérrez, I.. Empirical study of a sequence of access to Internet use in Ecuador), Telematics, Informatics, .

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.12.012

Gaysina, G.I., Zakirova, V.G.. Prevention of teenager's internet addiction: Pilot program [çocuklarda internet bağimliliğini önleme: Pilot programi]), Elementary Education Online, .

https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2017.348976

Citas em Google Scholar

Tirado-Morueta, R., Mendoza-Zambrano, D. M., Aguaded-Gómez, J. I., & Marín-Gutiérrez, I. (2017). Empirical study of a sequence of access to Internet use in Ecuador. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 171-183.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736585316303331

Jorge, A., & Farrugia, L. (2017). Are victims to blame? Youth, gender and moral discourse on online risk. Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, 9(2), 285-301.

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/cjcs/2017/00000009/00000002/art00008

Araüna, N., Dhaenens, F., & Van Bauwel, S. (2017). Historical, temporal and contemporary trends on gender and media. Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, 9(2), 177-184.

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/cjcs/2017/00000009/00000002/art00001

Gaysina, G. I., & Zakirova, V. G. (2017). Prevention of Teenager's Internet Addiction: Pilot Program. İlköğretim Online, 16(4).

https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/359343

Jemielniak, D. (2019). Socjologia internetu. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

...

González, S. C., & Maroto, J. L. S. F. (2018). Selfies, jóvenes y sexualidad en Instagram: representaciones del yo en formato imagen. Píxel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, (52), 167-181.

https://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/pixel/article/view/62530

De Piero, J. L., & Narvaja, M. E. (2018). Representaciones de género en comentarios digitales en dos Fan Page de Facebook. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud, 16(2), 759-775.

https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/773/Resumenes/Resumen_77357097009_1.pdf

Buendía Vélez, S. Redes sociales: territorio de nuevas migraciones digitales (Bachelor's thesis, Facultad de Comunicación y Lenguaje).

http://repository.javeriana.edu.co/handle/10554/19965

Tosco Echeverría, C. (2018). Género, TIC y Educación.

https://riull.ull.es/xmlui/handle/915/7373

Pineda, J. E. R. (2018). La utilizacion de las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion (TIC) en la consolidacion de las trayectorias afectivo-sexuales de los jovenes homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos residentes en Espana. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 31(2), 509-523.

...

Pineda, J. E. R. (2018). La utilización de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en la consolidación de las trayectorias afectivo-sexuales de los jóvenes homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos residentes en España. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 31(2), 529.

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/160037409.pdf

Barahona Balseca, F. F., & Bolaños Velásquez, D. P. (2019). Uso de redes sociales como medio de reproducción de la violencia de género en las estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, periodo 2018-2019 (Bachelor's thesis, Quito: UCE).

http://200.12.169.19:8080/handle/25000/18199

Di Marco, D., Arenas, A., Munduate, L., & Hoel, H. (2019). Discriminatory language in the workplace: unmasking prejudices and stereotypes/El lenguaje discriminatorio en contextos laborales: desenmascarando prejuicios y estereotipos. Revista de Psicología Social, 34(1), 110-136.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02134748.2018.1540122

Baixar

Métricas alternativas

Como citar

Dueñas-Cid, D., Pontón-Merino, P., Belzunegui-Eraso, ., & Pastor-Gosálbez, I. (2016). Discriminatory expressions, the young and social networks: The effect of gender. [Expresiones discriminatorias, jóvenes y redes sociales: La influencia del género]. Comunicar, 46, 67-76. https://doi.org/10.3916/C46-2016-07

Compartilhar

           

Caixa Postal 527

21080 Huelva (Espanha)

Administração

Redação

Creative Commons

Este site usa cookies para obter dados estatísticos sobre a navegação de seus usuários. Se você continuar navegando, consideramos que você aceita seu uso. +info X