Keywords

Hate speech, bibliometric analysis, social media, interdisciplinarity, scientific production, visibility

Abstract

The impact of hate speech, both on a personal and social level, has increased due to social media. This has made it the focus of interest of numerous scientific journals, which increases the visibility of this global problem. The aim of this research is to analyse the basic descriptive metrics of the scientific production on hate speech and social media, as well as to explore the interdisciplinarity of these approaches. A bibliometric study has been carried out on the basis of the works indexed in the Scopus database related to the binomial ‘hate speech’ and ‘social media’ over a period of 20 years (2001 to 2020). The metrics used show that it is from 2017 onwards when this topic begins to arouse greater interest among researchers and that they constitute a sufficient indicator to consider the topic as one of interest to the scientific community. The joint research between both concepts raises its quality levels from a strictly metric point of view. ‘Computer Science’ and ‘Social Sciences’ are the two areas that clearly define the scientific production on this subject. The inversion of percentages in terms of the areas of origin of the works and citations in these two areas, is evidence of this interdisciplinarity. The indicators obtained show the relevance and transcendence of a social problem in the face of which proactive measures must be implemented.

View infography

References

Abanmy, N.O., Al-Quait, N.A., Alami, A.H., Al-Juhani, M.H., & Al-Aqeel, S. (2012). The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 20(4), 317-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2012.07.001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Australian Computer Society (Ed.) (2005). Conferences in research and practice in information technology. Seventh Australasian Computing Education Conference. https://bit.ly/3kyB0iA

Link Google Scholar

Ávila-Robinson, A., Mejia, C., & Sengoku, S. (2021). Are bibliometric measures consistent with scientists’ perceptions? The case of interdisciplinarity in research. Scientometrics, 126(9), 7477-7502. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11192-021-04048-0

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ballesteros-Aguayo, L., & Langa-Nuño, C. (2018). Movimientos populistas en Europa: La actualización del discurso totalitario en los medios de comunicación actuales y su repercusión en la opinión pública. Egregius. https://bit.ly/3tqgA0R

Link Google Scholar

Barnes, R.I., Earl, G.F., Papazoglou, M., Burchett, L., & Terzuoli, A.J. (2010). The Instagram: A novel sounding technique for enhanced HF propagation advice. In IEEE National Radar Conference (pp. 1446-1449). https://doi.org/10.1109/RADAR.2010.5494387

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ben, A., & Matamoros, A. (2016). Hate speech and covert discrimination on social media: Monitoring the Facebook pages of extreme-right political parties in Spain. International Journal of Communication, 10, 1167-1193. https://bit.ly/3Bkevok

Link Google Scholar

Bornmann, L. (2014). How are excellent (highly cited) papers defined in bibliometrics? A quantitative analysis of the literature. Research Evaluation, 23(2), 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1093/reseval/rvu002

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Bornmann, L., Leydesdorff, L., Walch-Solimena, C., & Ettl, C. (2011). Mapping excellence in the geography of science: An approach based on Scopus data. Journal of Informetrics, 5(4), 537-546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2011.05.005

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

BRaVE (Ed.) (2019). Preventing redressing and inhibiting hate speech in new media. https://bit.ly/3euQUrP

Link Google Scholar

Burnap, P., & Williams, M.L. (2015). Cyber hate speech on Twitter: An application of machine classification and statistical modeling for policy and decision making. Policy & Internet, 7(2), 223-242. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.85

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Cabrera, J.F. (2020). Producción científica sobre integración de TIC a la Educación Física. Estudio bibliométrico en el periodo 1995-2017. Retos, 37, 748-754. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.67348

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Carneiro-Barrera, A., Ruiz-Herrera, N., & Díaz-Román, A. (2019). Tesis doctorales en Psicología tras la adaptación al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Revista de Investigación en Educación, 17(1), 32-43. https://bit.ly/2ZuI45t

Link Google Scholar

Chakraborti, N., Garland, J., & Hardy, S.J. (2014). The Leicester hate crime project: Findings and conclusions. University of Leicester. https://bit.ly/38lTPzQ

Link Google Scholar

Chen, S., Arsenault, C., Gingras, Y., & Larivière, V. (2014). Exploring the interdisciplinary evolution of a discipline: the case of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Scientometrics, 102(2), 1307-1323. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11192-014-1457-6

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Comisión Europea (Ed.) (2020). El código de conducta de la UE para la lucha contra la incitación ilegal al odio en Internet (comunicado de prensa IP/20/1134). https://bit.ly/32lrxX3

Link Google Scholar

Consejo de Europa (Ed.) (1997). Recomendación del Comité de Ministros del nº R (97) 20. https://bit.ly/3mBZASv

Link Google Scholar

Estabrooks, C.A., Winther, C., & Derksen, L. (2004). Mapping the field: A bibliometric analysis of the research utilization literature in nursing. Nursing Research, 53(5), 293-303. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200409000-00003

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gagliardone, I., Gal, D., Alves, T., & Martínez, G. (2015). Countering online hate speech. Programme in comparative media law and policy. University of Oxford. https://bit.ly/2XYfE6F

Link Google Scholar

Galeano, S. (2021, January 28). Cuales son las redes sociales con más usuarios del mundo. Marketing Ecommerce. https://bit.ly/3DmqAex

Link Google Scholar

Garton, T. (2017). Libertad de palabra. Diez principios para un mundo interconectado. Tusquets.

Link Google Scholar

Gascón, A. (2019). La lucha contra el discurso del odio en línea en la Unión Europea y los intermediarios de Internet. In Z. Combalía, M.P. Diago, & A. González-Varas (Eds.), Libertad de expresión y discurso de odio por motivos religiosos (pp. 64-86). Ediciones del Licregdi. https://bit.ly/3wkba9G

Link Google Scholar

Gillespie, T. (2010). The politics of platforms. New Media & Society, 12(3), 347-364. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809342738

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Green, H. (2007). Twitter. All trivia, all the time. Business Week, 4028, 40.

Link Google Scholar

Greene, K. (2007). Whats is he doing? MIT Technology Review, 110(6), 44-51. https://bit.ly/3sLu4Em

Link Google Scholar

Gross, R., Acquisti, A., & Heinz-III, H.J. (2005). Information revelation and privacy in online social networks. In WPES'05: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (pp. 71-80). https://doi.org/10.1145/1102199.1102214

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Guerrero-Bote, V.P., & Moya-Anegón, F. (2012). A further step forward in measuring journals’ scientific prestige: The SJR2 indicator. Journal of Informetrics, 6(4), 674-688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2012.07.001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Guerrero-Bote, V.P., Olmeda-Gómez, C., & de-Moya-Anegón, F. (2013). Quantifying the benefits of international scientific collaboration. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(2), 392-404. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22754

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Gutiérrez-Salcedo, M., Martínez, M.A., Moral-Munoz, J.A., Herrera-Viedma, E., & Cobo, M.J. (2018). Some bibliometric procedures for analyzing and evaluating research fields. Appl Intell, 48, 1275-1287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10489-017-1105-y

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Hardaker, C. (2013, August 3). What is turning so many young men into trolls? The Guardian. https://bit.ly/2Wod9dF

Link Google Scholar

Info Raxen (Ed.) (n.d.). Servicio de noticias de movimiento contra la intolerancia. https://bit.ly/3kua2Zp

Link Google Scholar

Jaramillo, S., Cardona, S.A., & Fernández, A. (2015). Minería de datos sobre streams de redes sociales, una herramienta al servicio de la Bibliotecología. Información, Cultura y Sociedad, 33, 63-74. https://doi.org/10.34096/ics.i33.1182

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Khosravinik, M., & Esposito, E. (2018). Online hate, digital discourse and critique: Exploring digitally-mediated discursive practices of gender-based hostility. Lodz Paper in Pragmatics, 14(1), 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1515/lpp-2018-0003

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Khosrowjerdi, M., & Bayat, M.K. (2013). Mapping the Interdisciplinarity in Scientometric Studies. Iranian Journal of Information Processing and Management, 28(2), 393-409. https://bit.ly/3CAUiwp

Link Google Scholar

Kim, J.H. (2011). A study on the graphic user interface for emotional communications in the mobile messenger -focused on 'Kakao Talk' and ‘WhatsApp' by case analysis. Korea Open Access Journal, 18, 142-155. https://doi.org/10.17246/jkdk.2011.18.015

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Kvalnes, O. (2010). Moral reasoning at work: Rethinking ethics in organizations. Palgrave pivot. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137532619.0001

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Lashinsky, A. (2005). Facebook stares down success. Fortune, 152(11), 40. bit.ly/3EXzv72

Link Google Scholar

Leydesdorff, L., & Nerghes, A. (2017). Co-word maps and topic modeling: A Comparison using small and medium-sized corpora (N< 1,000). Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(4), 1024-1035. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23740

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Leydesdorff, L., & Rafols, I. (2011). Indicators of the interdisciplinarity of journals: Diversity, centrality, and citations. Journal of Informetrics, 5(1), 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2010.09.002

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Liu, W., Liu, W., Li, M., Chen, P., Yang, L., Xiao, Ch., & Ye, Y. (2018). Fine-grained task-level parallel and low power h.264 decoding in multi-core systems. In 24th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). https://doi.org/10.1109/PADSW.2018.8644865

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Losada-Díaz, J.C., Zamora-Medina, R., & Martínez-Martínez, H. (2021). El discurso del odio en Instagram durante las Elecciones Generales 2019 en España. Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación, 12(2), 195-208. https://doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM.19142

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Marabel, J.J. (2021). Delitos de odio y redes sociales: El derecho frente al reto de las nuevas tecnologías. Revista de Derecho UNED, 27, 137-172. https://doi.org/10.5944/rduned.27.2021.31076

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Marín-Aranguren, E.M., & Trejos-Mateu, F.D. (2019). Sociedad civil en red y gobernanza de la Agenda 2030. Forum, 15, 91-117. https://doi.org/10.15446/frdcp.n15.74544

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Martín-Martín, A., Thelwall, M., Orduna-Malea, E., & Delgado-López, E. (2021). Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Scopus, Dimensions, Web of Science, and OpenCitations’ COCI: A multidisciplinary comparison of coverage via citations. Scientometrics, 126, 871-906. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03690-4

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Martínez-Nicolás, M., & Saperas, E. (2011). La investigación sobre Comunicación en España (1998-2007). Análisis de los artículos publicados en revistas científicas. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 66, 101-129. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-66-2011-926-101-129

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

McFedries, P. (2007). Technical Speaking: All A-Twitter. IEEE Spectrum, 44(10), 84. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2007.4337670

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Merino-Arribas, A., & López-Meri, A. (2018). La lucha contra el inmigracionalismo y el discurso del odio en el metamedio social Twitter. En J.L. González-Esteban, & J.A. García-Avilés (Eds.), Mediamorfosis. Radiografía de la innovación en el periodismo (pp. 211-224). https://bit.ly/38jehBv

Link Google Scholar

Mingers, J., & Leydesdorff, L. (2015). A review of theory and practice in scientometrics. European Journal of Operational Research, 246(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.04.002

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores (Ed.) (1999). Resolución de 5 de abril de 1999, de la Secretaría General Técnica, por la que se hacen públicos los textos refundidos del Convenio para la protección de los derechos y de las libertades fundamentales. 6 de mayo de 1999, BOE nº 108. https://bit.ly/2Wv4OVq

Link Google Scholar

Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación (Ed.) (2016). Recomendación General nº 15 sobre Líneas de Actuación en relación con la lucha contra las expersiones de incitación al odio. https://bit.ly/3mAEdRz

Link Google Scholar

Mishra, R. (2021). Are we doing enough? A Bibliometric analysis of hate speech research in the selected database of Scopus. Library Philosophy and Practice, 5140. https://bit.ly/3sxcZyj

Link Google Scholar

Montero-Díaz, J., Cobo, M., Gutiérrez-Salcedo, M., Segado-Boj, F., & Herrera-Viedma, E. (2018). A science mapping analysis of ‘Communication’ WoS subject category (1980-2013). [Mapeo científico de la Categoría «Comunicación» en WoS (1980-2013)]. Comunicar, 55, 81-91. https://doi.org/10.3916/C55-2018-08

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Nikou, S., Bouwman, H., & De-Reuver, M. (2012a). The potential of converged mobile telecommunication services: A conjoint analysis. Info, 14(5), 21-35. https://doi.org/10.1108/14636691211256287

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Nikou, S., Bouwman, H., & De-Reuver, M. (2012b). Mobile converged rich communication services: A conjoint analysis. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1353-1362. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2012.434

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Parekh, B. (2006). Hate speech. Is there a case of banning? Public Policy Research 12(4), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1070-3535.2005.00405.x

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Porter, A.L., & Rafols, I. (2009). Is science becoming more interdisciplinary? Measuring and mapping six research fields over time. Scientometrics, 81(3), 719-745. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11192-008-2197-2

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

PRISMA (Ed.) (2020). Declaración PRISMA. https://bit.ly/33JwE3x

Link Google Scholar

Rehn, C., & Kronman, U. (2008). Bibliometric handbook for Karolinska Institutet. Karolinska Institutet. https://bit.ly/3qmpbQm

Link Google Scholar

Repiso-Caballero, R., Torres-Salinas, D., & Delgado López-Cozar, E. (2016). Análisis de la relación entre disciplinas a través del uso de tesis doctorales. El caso de Televisión, Radio, Cine y Fotografía en España. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 71, 874-890. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2016-1125

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Rinia, E.J., van Leeuwen, T.N., & van-Raan, A.F.J. (2002). Impact measures of interdisciplinary research in physics. Budapest Scientometrics, 53(2), 241-248. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014856625623

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Shafer, L. (2016). TiK ToK on the Clock, but the party don't stop, no: The parodic military dance video on YouTube. In D.A. Cunningham, & J.C. Nelson (Eds.), A companion to the war film (pp. 320-337). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118337653.ch19

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Singh, V.K., Singh, P., Karmakar, M., Leta, J., & Mayer, P. (2021). The journal coverage of Web of Science, Scopus and Dimensions: A comparative analysis. Scientometric, 126, 5113-5142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-021-03948-5

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Snowball Metrics (Ed.) (n.d.). Standardized research metrics – by the sector for the sector. https://bit.ly/3J6cLmS

Link Google Scholar

Tontodimamma, A., Nissi, E., Sarra, A., & Fontanella, L. (2021). Thirty years of research into hate speech: Topics of interest and their evolution. Scientometrics, 126(1), 157-179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03737-6

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Vargas-Quesada, B., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., & Rodríguez, N. (2017). Identification and Visualization of the Intellectual Structure in Graphene Research. Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics, 0, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/frma.2017.00007

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Viseu, A. (2015). Integration of social science into research is crucial. Nature, 525(7569), 291-291. https://doi.org/10.1038/525291a

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wachs, S., & Wright, M.F. (2019). The moderation of online disinhibition and sex on the relationship between online hate victimization and perpetration. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(5), 300-306. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0551

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Waldron, J. (2012). The harm in hate speech. Harvard University. https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674065086

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Wang, Z.Y., Li, G., Li, C.Y., & Li, A. (2012). Research on the semantic-based co-word analysis. Scientometrics, 90(3), 855-875. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11192-011-0563-Y

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Woolley, S. (2006a). Raw and random. Forbes, 177(5), 46. https://bit.ly/3zqtUmu

Link Google Scholar

Woolley, S. (2006b). The YouTube revolution. Forbes, 178(8), 100. https://bit.ly/38hphzp

Link Google Scholar

Wright, M.F., Wachs, S., & Gámez-Guadix, M. (2021). Youths’ coping with cyberhate: Roles of parental mediation and family support. [Jóvenes ante el ciberodio: El rol de la mediación parental y el apoyo familiar]. Comunicar, 67, 21-33. https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-02

Link DOI | Link Google Scholar

Crossmark

Technical information

Received: 27-12-2021

Revised: 14-01-2022

Accepted: 02-03-2022

OnlineFirst: 15-05-2022

Publication date: 01-07-2022

Article revision time: 18 days | Average time revision issue 72: 31 days

Article acceptance time: 65 days | Average time of acceptance issue 72: 75 days

Preprint editing time: 140 days | Average editing time preprint issue 72: 150 days

Article editing time: 185 days | Average editing time issue 72: 195 days

Metrics

Metrics of this article

Views: 14281

Abstract readings: 13096

PDF downloads: 1185

Full metrics of Comunicar 72

Views: 259471

Abstract readings: 235088

PDF downloads: 24383

Cited by

Cites in Web of Science

Blanco-Alfonso, I; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L and Arce-Garcia, S. Polarization and hate speech with gender bias associated with politics: analysis of interactions on Twitter REVISTA DE COMUNICACION-PERU, 2022.

https://doi.org/10.26441/RC21.2-2022-A2

Juangarcia, RL; Adarraga, AA and Jaso, MFN. The Constructive Role of the Media in Hate Speech Controversies: The Valtonyc and Hasel Cases JOURNALISM PRACTICE, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2023.2242818

Hou, JH; Yang, XC and Zhang, Y. The effect of social media knowledge cascade: an analysis of scientific papers diffusion SCIENTOMETRICS, 2023.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04785-4

Gutierrez, TDM; Martinez, HL; (...); Garcia, LHB. INTEGRATING THE FRAGMENTED: INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AND INTEGRATIVE PROJECTS REVISTA CONRADO, 2023.

Link Google Scholar

Cites in Scopus

Blanco-Alfonso, I., Rodríguez-Fernández, L., Arce-García, S.. Polarization and hate speech with gender bias associated with politics: analysis of interactions on Twitter ), Revista de Comunicacion, .

https://doi.org/10.26441/RC21.2-2022-A2

Labiano Juangarcía, R., Azurmendi Adarraga, A., Novoa Jaso, M.F.. The Constructive Role of the Media in Hate Speech Controversies: The Valtònyc and Hasél Cases), Journalism Practice, .

https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2023.2242818

Aguilar, H.G.. THE POLITICAL HATE SPEECH IN THE LAST PERUVIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION An analysis from critical discourse approaches), VISUAL Review. International Visual Culture Review, .

https://doi.org/10.37467/revvisual.v10.4562

Hou, J., Yang, X., Zhang, Y.. The effect of social media knowledge cascade: an analysis of scientific papers diffusion), Scientometrics, .

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04785-4

Cites in Google Scholar

Polarización y discurso de odio con sesgo de género asociado a la política: análisis de las interacciones en Twitter I Blanco-Alfonso, L Rodríguez-Fernández… - Revista de …, 2022 - scielo.org.pe

http://www.scielo.org.pe/scielo.php?pid=S1684-09332022000200002&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt

El discurso político del odio en las últimas elecciones presidenciales de Perú: Un análisis desde los planteamientos del discurso crítico HG Aguilar - … Visual Culture Review/Revista Internacional de …, 2023 - journals.eagora.org

https://journals.eagora.org/revVISUAL/article/view/4562

Cultura de la cancelación, restauración y violación: Revisión crítica del drama interpersonal entre influencers A Vizcaíno-Verdú, P de-Casas-Moreno… - researchgate.net

...

Download

Alternative metrics

How to cite

Ramírez-García, A., González-Molina, A., Gutiérrez-Arenas, M., & Moyano-Pacheco, M. (2022). Interdisciplinarity of scientific production on hate speech and social media: A bibliometric analysis. [Interdisciplinariedad de la producción científica sobre el discurso del odio y las redes sociales: Un análisis bibliométrico]. Comunicar, 72, 129-140. https://doi.org/10.3916/C72-2022-10

Share

           

Oxbridge Publishing House

4 White House Way

B91 1SE Sollihul United Kingdom

Administration

Editorial office

Creative Commons

This website uses cookies to obtain statistical data on the navigation of its users. If you continue to browse we consider that you accept its use. +info X